Abstract

We present a theoretical study of isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium driven by an intense few-cycle laser pulse. We show that the generation of the macroscopic xuv supercontinuum is governed by the initial population of the excited state. Large initial population of the excited state leads to the high density of the free electrons in the media and strongly changes macroscopic properties of the driving pulse and the supercontinuum, and diminishes the isolated attosecond pulse generation. Instead, small initial population of 5% in the pre-excited media subjected to the few-cycle driving pulse can produce well phase-matched xuv supercontinuum, and a pure intense isolated attosecond pulse with the pulse duration of approximately 150 as and the pulse energy up to 0.5 nJ is directly obtained.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1684–1689 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 18, 11308–11315 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, “Asymmetric molecular gating for supercontinuous high harmonic generation in the plateau,” Opt. Express 16, 17542–17553 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. D. Bandrauk and N. H. Shon, “Attosecond control of ionization and high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 031401(R) (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and Ionization of He+ under Simultaneous Irradiation of Fundamental Laser and High-Order Harmonic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043002 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 308–317 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2010 (3)

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, “Asymmetric molecular gating for supercontinuous high harmonic generation in the plateau,” Opt. Express 16, 17542–17553 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 308–317 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and Ionization of He+ under Simultaneous Irradiation of Fundamental Laser and High-Order Harmonic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043002 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. D. Bandrauk and N. H. Shon, “Attosecond control of ionization and high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 031401(R) (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk and N. H. Shon, “Attosecond control of ionization and high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 031401(R) (2002).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burnett, K.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M B.

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gilbertson, S.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, A.

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, W.

Ishikawa, K.

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and Ionization of He+ under Simultaneous Irradiation of Fundamental Laser and High-Order Harmonic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043002 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kling, M. F.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lan, P.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, “Asymmetric molecular gating for supercontinuous high harmonic generation in the plateau,” Opt. Express 16, 17542–17553 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, “Asymmetric molecular gating for supercontinuous high harmonic generation in the plateau,” Opt. Express 16, 17542–17553 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Li, R.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liao, Q.

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 043413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, “Asymmetric molecular gating for supercontinuous high harmonic generation in the plateau,” Opt. Express 16, 17542–17553 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hong, Y. Li, P. Lu, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in multi-cycle regime and efficient broadband attosecond pulse generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1684–1689 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Efficient isolated attosecond pulse generation from a multi-cycle two-color laser field,” Opt. Express 15, 530–535 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, and X. Wang, “Efficient generation of an isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043808 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lucchini, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lyngå, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mashiko, H.

Midorikawa, K.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miloševic, D. B.

Mücke, O. D.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the “Single-Cycle” Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K J.

M B. Gaarde, K J. Schafer, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Large enhancement of macroscopic yield in attosecond pulse train-assisted harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013411 (2005).
[Crossref]

K J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shon, N. H.

A. D. Bandrauk and N. H. Shon, “Attosecond control of ionization and high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 031401(R) (2002).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photon. 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E.

E. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C. -G.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. -G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, S.

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, W. Hong, Q. Liao, and S. Wang, “Control of high-order harmonic generation from molecules lacking inversion symmetry with a polarization gating method,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, P.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London) 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science, 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

Yang, Z.

Yun, C.

Zeng, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)The normalized populations of the excited (yellow region) and ground states (grey region) as a function of time during the laser field (red line) and (b) the corresponding classical electron trajectories during the driving pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)The harmonic spectrum and (b) its time-frequency distribution from the pre-excited system with the few-cycle driving pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)The harmonic spectrum as a function of CEP and (b) the variation of the population of the excited state as a function of CEP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The emitted efficiency of the supercontinuum as a function of the initial population of the excited state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The continuous parts of the macroscopic on-axis harmonic spectra in the pre-excited medium with different initial population of the excited state of p = 0.05(red line), p = 0.1(blue line),p = 0.3(black line) and p = 0.5(violet line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The electric fields of the driving pulses after propagation with the excited-state populations of p=0.05, p=0.1, p=0.3 and p=0.5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized temporal profiles of the attosecond pulses with the excited-state populations of (a) p=0.05, (b) p=0.1, (c) p=0.3 and (d) p=0.5. The dashed line is the case at single-atom level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal profiles of emitted powers of the attosecond pulses with the excited-state populations of p=0.05, p=0.1, p=0.3 and p=0.5. The inset is the enlargement for the cases of p=0.3 and p=0.5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spatiotemporal profiles of the attosecond pulses at the end of the medium with the excited-state populations of (a) p=0.05, (b) p=0.1, (c) p=0.3 and (d) p=0.5, respectively.

Equations (7)

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Ψ ( r , t 0 ) = α | g + β | e ,
d n l ( t ) = Ψ ( r , t ) | x ^ | Ψ ( r , t ) ,
a q = | 1 T 0 T a ( t ) exp ( i q ω t ) | 2 ,
2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E f ( ρ , z , t )
2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 2 P n l ( ρ , z , t ) t 2
E ( t ) = E 0 cos [ ω ( t T 0 ) + ϕ ] s i n 2 ( π t T ) x ,
P r = 0 R ( 1 2 ɛ 0 c E a 2 ) 2 π r d r ,

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