Abstract

We demonstrate vertical chip-to-chip light coupling using silicon strip waveguide cantilever couplers. The guided-wave couplers consist of silicon strip waveguides embedded within silicon dioxide cantilevers. The cantilevers deflect 90° out-of-plane via residual stress, allowing vertical light coupling between separate chips. A chip-to-chip coupling loss of 2.5 dB per connection is measured for TE polarization and 1.1 dB for TM polarization at 1550 nm wavelength. The coupling loss varies by less than ± 0.8 dB within the wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1565 nm for both polarizations. The couplers enable broadband and compact system architectures involving high speed vertical data transport between photonic integrated circuits.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
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2011

2009

B. S. Rho, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, G. W. Kim, C. H. Cho, and W.-J. Lee, “Intra-system optical interconnection module directly integrated on a polymeric optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1215–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Sun and R. M. Reano, “Cantilever couplers for intra-chip coupling to silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4565–4574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2006

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charavel, B. Olbrechts, and J. P. Raskin, “Stress release of PECVD oxide by RTA,” Proc. SPIE 5116, 596–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, and A. Neyer, “64 channel 2D POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(2), 313–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Burger, J. R. Goodman, and A. Kägi, “Limited bandwidth to affect processor design,” IEEE Micro 17(6), 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Asghari, M.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burger, D.

D. Burger, J. R. Goodman, and A. Kägi, “Limited bandwidth to affect processor design,” IEEE Micro 17(6), 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charavel, R.

R. Charavel, B. Olbrechts, and J. P. Raskin, “Stress release of PECVD oxide by RTA,” Proc. SPIE 5116, 596–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. H.

Cohen, D.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Luff, T. Sze, D. Cohen, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15052–15058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dangel, R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Goodman, J. R.

D. Burger, J. R. Goodman, and A. Kägi, “Limited bandwidth to affect processor design,” IEEE Micro 17(6), 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. H.

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jöhnck, M.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, and A. Neyer, “64 channel 2D POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(2), 313–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kägi, A.

D. Burger, J. R. Goodman, and A. Kägi, “Limited bandwidth to affect processor design,” IEEE Micro 17(6), 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. W.

Kinoshita, M.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Luff, T. Sze, D. Cohen, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15052–15058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Kung, S.-Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwark, Y. H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-J.

Lei, H.

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Libsch, F. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

Lin, C.-K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Luff, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, and A. Neyer, “64 channel 2D POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(2), 313–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nozawa, M.

Nyikal, H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

Olbrechts, B.

R. Charavel, B. Olbrechts, and J. P. Raskin, “Stress release of PECVD oxide by RTA,” Proc. SPIE 5116, 596–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Patel, C. S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raskin, J. P.

R. Charavel, B. Olbrechts, and J. P. Raskin, “Stress release of PECVD oxide by RTA,” Proc. SPIE 5116, 596–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reano, R. M.

Rho, B. S.

Rosner, J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shan, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Luff, T. Sze, D. Cohen, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15052–15058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simons, J.

Sun, P.

Sze, T.

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, B.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, and A. Neyer, “64 channel 2D POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(2), 313–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Luff, T. Sze, D. Cohen, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15052–15058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

D. Burger, J. R. Goodman, and A. Kägi, “Limited bandwidth to affect processor design,” IEEE Micro 17(6), 55–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, and A. Neyer, “64 channel 2D POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(2), 313–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Charavel, B. Olbrechts, and J. P. Raskin, “Stress release of PECVD oxide by RTA,” Proc. SPIE 5116, 596–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of vertical chip-to-chip light coupling using silicon strip waveguide cantilever couplers. The silicon strip waveguide cross-section is 450 nm × 250 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of fabrication process: (a) initial silicon circuits, (b) deposition of the Ti/Ni mask, (c) FIB direct writing of patterns on the Ti/Ni mask, (d) reactive ion etching to release SiO2 cantilevers, (e) removal of the Ti/Ni mask, (f) thermal annealing to increase deflection angle to 90°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Thickness reduction versus annealing temperature of test samples consisting of PECVD SiO2/BOX bilayer film and BOX single-layer film only. (b) SEMs of the as-fabricated cantilevers and the 770 °C annealed cantilevers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the measurement setup. (b) Oblique view visible light micrograph of two cantilevers on the top chip coupled to two cantilevers on the bottom chip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured vertical chip-to-chip coupling loss versus wavelength for TE and TM polarizations. The couplers are butt-coupled.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured coupling loss versus vertical misalignment in the Z direction for TE and TM polarizations at 1550 nm wavelength. A vertical misalignment of 0 corresponds to butt-coupling. (b) Measured coupling loss versus lateral misalignment in X and Y directions (at 0 µm lateral misalignment, the vertical misalignment is set to 1.2 µm).

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