Abstract

The development of photochromic Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) to test any complex optics, such as aspheres and free-form optics, is described. A thermally irreversible photochromic polyurethane has been synthesized to give good thin films with a strong modulation of the optical transmission. The photochromic CGH has been tested with a simple interferometrical configuration showing promising results. The use of photochromic CGHs provides advantages over standard technologies, as rewritability and self developing.

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2009 (2)

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. M. Raymo and M. Tomasulo, “Optical processing with photochromic switches,” Chemistry 12(12), 3186–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Wigglesworth, A. J. Myles, and N. R. Branda, “High-content photochromic polymers based on dithienylethenes,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005(7), 1233–1238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Luo, K. X. Chen, L. C. Cao, G. D. Liu, Q. S. He, G. F. Jin, D. X. Zeng, and Y. Chen, “Photochromic diarylethene for rewritable holographic data storage,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3123–3128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucotti, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “'Optical' fatigue in a solid state diarylethene polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392(4-6), 549–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

Y. C. Chang and J. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Optical Manufacturing and Testing III 3782, 358–366 (1999).

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. K. Choi, and M. H. Lee, “Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer,” Macromolecules 32(15), 4855–4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. H. Waldeck, “Photoisomerization Dynamics of Stilbenes,” Chem. Rev. 91(3), 415–436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1972 (2)

1971 (1)

Ahn, K. H.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, V. P.

Bens, A. T.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Berkovic, G.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bertarelli, C.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucotti, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “'Optical' fatigue in a solid state diarylethene polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392(4-6), 549–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biteau, J.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boffa, V.

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

Branda, N. R.

T. J. Wigglesworth, A. J. Myles, and N. R. Branda, “High-content photochromic polymers based on dithienylethenes,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005(7), 1233–1238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J.

Y. C. Chang and J. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Optical Manufacturing and Testing III 3782, 358–366 (1999).

Cao, L. C.

Cattaneo, S.

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang and J. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Optical Manufacturing and Testing III 3782, 358–366 (1999).

Chaput, F.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. X.

Chen, Y.

Cho, S.

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. K.

E. Kim, Y. K. Choi, and M. H. Lee, “Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer,” Macromolecules 32(15), 4855–4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comanici, R.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Darracq, B.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dassa, G.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

Fan, C. B.

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, M. G.

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feringa, B. L.

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, B.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Gallazzi, M. C.

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

He, Q. S.

Hermes, S.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. C.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. F.

Kellogg, R. M.

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. K. Choi, and M. H. Lee, “Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer,” Macromolecules 32(15), 4855–4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. R.

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobatake, S.

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krongauz, V.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kryschi, C.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Kucharski, S.

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lahlil, K.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le, Z. G.

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, S.

Lee, I. S.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

E. Kim, Y. K. Choi, and M. H. Lee, “Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer,” Macromolecules 32(15), 4855–4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lehn, J. M.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lei, M.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. Z.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lifka, T.

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. D.

Livingston, R. C.

Lucas, L. N.

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucotti, A.

A. Lucotti, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “'Optical' fatigue in a solid state diarylethene polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392(4-6), 549–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S. J.

MacGovern, A. J.

Marois, C.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. D.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Menke, N.

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirenda, M.

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Myles, A. J.

T. J. Wigglesworth, A. J. Myles, and N. R. Branda, “High-content photochromic polymers based on dithienylethenes,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005(7), 1233–1238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okinaka, M.

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ortyl, E.

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. G.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pruss, C.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S. Z.

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raymo, F. M.

F. M. Raymo and M. Tomasulo, “Optical processing with photochromic switches,” Chemistry 12(12), 3186–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichelt, S.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, H.

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

Saito, H.

Sakemura, K.

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. W.

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shindo, Y.

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stellacci, F.

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomasulo, M.

F. M. Raymo and M. Tomasulo, “Optical processing with photochromic switches,” Chemistry 12(12), 3186–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Toscano, F.

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toso, G.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsivgoulis, G. M.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Esch, J.

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waldeck, D. H.

D. H. Waldeck, “Photoisomerization Dynamics of Stilbenes,” Chem. Rev. 91(3), 415–436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wigglesworth, T. J.

T. J. Wigglesworth, A. J. Myles, and N. R. Branda, “High-content photochromic polymers based on dithienylethenes,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005(7), 1233–1238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Xiao, Q.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. K.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. I.

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. S.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B. L.

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

Yoo, M.

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, D. X.

Zerbi, G.

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucotti, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “'Optical' fatigue in a solid state diarylethene polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392(4-6), 549–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C. H.

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zielinska, S.

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zotti, G.

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, V. Boffa, M. Mirenda, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Poly(dithienylethene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s: Increasing the molecular weights in diarylethene photochromic polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(11), 1129–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Stellacci, C. Bertarelli, F. Toscano, M. C. Gallazzi, G. Zotti, and G. Zerbi, “A high quantum yield diarylethene-backbone photochromic polymer,” Adv. Mater. 11, 292–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2)

L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “A new class of photochromic 1,2-diarylethenes; synthesis and switching properties of bis(3-thienyl)cyclopentenes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (21), 2313–2314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (8), 747–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lucotti, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “'Optical' fatigue in a solid state diarylethene polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 392(4-6), 549–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (3)

D. H. Waldeck, “Photoisomerization Dynamics of Stilbenes,” Chem. Rev. 91(3), 415–436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1685–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chemistry (1)

F. M. Raymo and M. Tomasulo, “Optical processing with photochromic switches,” Chemistry 12(12), 3186–3193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E-Polymers (1)

A. T. Bens, R. Comanici, B. Gabel, C. Kryschi, H. D. Martin, and H. Ritter, “Novel photosensitive polyurethanes based on photochromic dithienylethene monomers: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of a new film-building material for photonic applications,” E-Polymers (2003).

ETRI J. (1)

E. Kim, J. Park, S. Cho, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Preparation and holographic recording of diarylethene-doped photochromic films,” ETRI J. 25(4), 253–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Org. Chem. (1)

T. J. Wigglesworth, A. J. Myles, and N. R. Branda, “High-content photochromic polymers based on dithienylethenes,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005(7), 1233–1238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, I. S. Lee, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Highly fluorescent photochromic diarylethene with an excellent fatigue property,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(1), 97–103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Org. Chem. (1)

M. Irie, K. Sakemura, M. Okinaka, and K. Uchida, “Photochromism of dithienylethenes with electron-donating substituents,” J. Org. Chem. 60(25), 8305–8309 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

Y. C. Jeong, D. G. Park, E. Kim, S. I. Yang, and K. H. Ahn, “Polymerization of a photochromic diarylethene by friedel-crafts alkylation,” Macromolecules 39(9), 3106–3109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. K. Choi, and M. H. Lee, “Photoinduced refractive index change of a photochromic diarylethene polymer,” Macromolecules 32(15), 4855–4860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, B. L. Yao, Y. L. Wang, M. Lei, and J. K. Xu, “Photochromic diarylethene for polarization holographic optical recording,” Mater. Lett. 61(3), 855–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Osten, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (3)

Y. Chen, C. M. Wang, M. G. Fan, B. L. Yao, and N. Menke, “Photochromic fulgide for holographic recording,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 75–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zielińska, E. Ortyl, R. Barille, and S. Kucharski, “Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 198–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Cho, M. Yoo, H. W. Shin, K. H. Ahn, Y. R. Kim, and E. Kim, “Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 279–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Optical Manufacturing and Testing III (1)

Y. C. Chang and J. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Optical Manufacturing and Testing III 3782, 358–366 (1999).

Tetrahedron (2)

S. Z. Pu, C. H. Zheng, Z. G. Le, G. Liu, and C. B. Fan, “Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic diarylethenes,” Tetrahedron 64(11), 2576–2585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Pu, T. S. Yang, J. K. Xu, L. Shen, G. Z. Li, Q. Xiao, and B. Chen, “Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of four photochromic dithienylethenes,” Tetrahedron 61(27), 6623–6629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tetrahedron Lett. (1)

S. Hermes, G. Dassa, G. Toso, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, and G. Zerbi, “New fast synthesis route for symmetric and asymmetric phenyl-substituted photochromic dithienylethenes bearing functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, or amines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50(14), 1614–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).

S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, and H. J. Tiziani, “Specification and characterization of CGHs for interferometrical optical testing,” in Interferometry XI: Applications, W. Osten, ed. (2002), pp. 206–217.

F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. Biteau, J.-P. Boilot, B. Darracq, Y. Levy, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, J.-M. Lehn, and A. Fernandez-Acebes, “Design of optical components and optical data storage in photochromic sol-gel films containing dithienylethene or azobenzene derivatives,” in Sol-Gel Optics V, (SPIE, 2000), 32–37.

B. Braunecker, R. Hentschel, and H. J. Tiziani, eds., Advanced Optics Using Aspherical Elements (SPIE, Bellingham, 2008).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, Pure and Applied Optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992).

J. C. Crano, and R. J. Guglielmetti, Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds, Topics in Applied Chemistry (Plenum Press, 1999).

H. Dürr, and H. Bouas-Laurent, eds., Photochromism, Molecules and Systems (Elsevier, 1990).

B. L. Feringa, ed., Molecular Switches (Wiley-VCH, 2001).

A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, P. Conconi, E. Molinari, C. Quaglia, G. Toso, F. M. Zerbi, and G. Zerbi, “New developments in photochromic materials for volume phase holographic gratings,” in Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy, (SPIE, 2006), 62733V–62737.

T. Kardinahl, and H. Franke, “Holographic gratings in organic photochromics: nonlinear and switchable gratings,” in Holographic Materials II, (SPIE, 1996), 52–58.

R. A. Lessard, F. Ghailane, and G. Manivannan, “Holographic characterization of photochromic-doped-polymer films for holographic memories,” in Holographic Materials II, (SPIE, 1996), 45–51.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The random photochromic copolymer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Interferogram of a 4 μm thick, 50% w/w DTEs content photochromic film on a n-BK7, 30 mm, λ/4 PV substrate (PV: 990 nm, RMS: 112 nm). Particular of a 15 mm diameter subaperture b) before the pattern application (PV: 250 nm, RMS: 44 nm) and c) after the pattern application (PV: 243 nm, RMS: 43 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV-Vis-NIR spectra of a 4 μm thick film containing 50% w/w DTEs. A: colorless form; B: colored form.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Molar absorption coefficient ε of the photochromic polyurethane in the UV-Vis range of the spectrum. b) Contrast trend at 633 nm as function of film thickness Z for two film series, with different photochromic content (straight lines calculated from ε data; dots are experimental data).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Configuration of the interferometrical test of the Fresnel CGH; b) Recorded fringes.

Equations (3)

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C ( λ ) = T c o l o r l e s s ( λ ) T c o l o r e d ( λ ) 10 A c o l o r e d ( λ )
A ( λ ) = ε ( λ ) Z
ε ( λ ) = 100 M p h ε ' ( λ ) ρ w %

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