Abstract

We present a variable focus lens for the THz range. The focal length can be changed by pumping a medical white oil in and out of the lens body. Due to the optical transparency of the liquid and a similar refractive index in the visible frequency range, the THz beam path can be aligned using conventional optical light sources. This type of lens might find applications in terahertz based quality control, stand-off detection and wireless communication systems.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  43. C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Highly sensitive terahertz measurement of layer thickness using a two-cylinder waveguide sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

D. Chen and H. Chen, “A novel low-loss Terahertz waveguide: polymer tube,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3762–3767 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V., H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Z. A. Lo and T. E. Murphy, “Nanoporous silicon multilayers for terahertz filtering,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2921–2923 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Shaw and C.-W. Lin, “Coma compensation of O-ring driven liquid-filled lenses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Quarter-wavelength multilayer interference filter for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2374–2379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Banerjee, W. von Spiegel, M. D. Thomson, S. Schabel, and H. G. Roskos, “Diagnosing water content in paper by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9060–9066 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Nemec, “Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 680–682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 351–364 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, and Y.-H. Lo, “High-performance fluidic adaptive lenses,” Appl. Opt. 43(4), 783–787 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

J. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. 30(2), 195–197 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. C. Knollman, J. L. S. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, “Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(1B), 253–261 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

Adam, A. J.

Afshar V., S.

Alkuwari, R. A.

Al-Naib, I.

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Araki, T.

Astley, V.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

Averitt, R.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bahr, L.

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, D.

Bang, O.

Bastian, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Highly sensitive terahertz measurement of layer thickness using a two-cylinder waveguide sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellin, J. L. S.

G. C. Knollman, J. L. S. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, “Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(1B), 253–261 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. 30(2), 195–197 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chee, K.

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Chen, D.

Chen, H.

D. Chen and H. Chen, “A novel low-loss Terahertz waveguide: polymer tube,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3762–3767 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chernovsky, A.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobbertin, T.

D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fekete, L.

Fichter, G.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Furuta, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Grischkowsky, D.

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Highly sensitive terahertz measurement of layer thickness using a two-cylinder waveguide sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasek, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hochrein, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, Y.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Kadlec, F.

Kammoun, A.

D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
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H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
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C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
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D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
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G. C. Knollman, J. L. S. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, “Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(1B), 253–261 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
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R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kopschinski, O.

Kosugi, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
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N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Krumbholz, N.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Lai, C.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
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Lin, C.-W.

D. Shaw and C.-W. Lin, “Coma compensation of O-ring driven liquid-filled lenses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 129–132 (2009).
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Lo, Y.-H.

Lu, J.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
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McGowan, R. W.

Mikhailenko, I.

Mikulics, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
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Minamide, H.

Mittleman, D.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

Monro, T. M.

Morita, S.

Münter, K.

C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
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Nagatsuma, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
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Nagel, M.

Nakajima, F.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
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Neu, J.

Nielsen, K.

Padilla, W.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
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Peik, S.

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
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Planken, P. C.

Powers, P. E.

Pupeza, I.

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Rahm, M.

Rasmussen, H. K.

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Ren, H.

H. Ren and S. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211107 (2005).
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Rutz, F.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
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A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
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Schabel, S.

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M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
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D. Shaw and C.-W. Lin, “Coma compensation of O-ring driven liquid-filled lenses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stuk, G.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Suizu, K.

Sun, C.

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
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A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Highly sensitive terahertz measurement of layer thickness using a two-cylinder waveguide sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071106 (2010).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
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D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Spiegel, W.

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
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G. C. Knollman, J. L. S. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, “Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(1B), 253–261 (1971).
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C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

White, J.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wietzke, S.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

Williamson, S.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
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H. Ren and S. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, R.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Zhang, D.-Y.

Zimdars, D.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Highly sensitive terahertz measurement of layer thickness using a two-cylinder waveguide sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, C. Chiu, C. Kuo, C. Lai, H. Chang, Y. Hwang, C. Pan, and C. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

D. Turchinovich, A. Kammoun, P. Knobloch, T. Dobbertin, and M. Koch, “Flexible all-plastic mirrors for the THz range,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(2), 291–293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

C. Jastrow, K. Münter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kürner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213–214 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124–126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head,” Electron. Lett. 44(25), 1473–1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), 1937–1944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. 30(2), 195–197 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. (1)

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” Insight-Non-Destruct. Test. Condition Monitor. 48(9), 537–539 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

G. C. Knollman, J. L. S. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, “Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49(1B), 253–261 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves (1)

C. Jördens, K. Chee, I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimetre waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared. Millim. Terahz. Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. Azad, R. Averitt, and A. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Quarter-wavelength multilayer interference filter for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2374–2379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing sub-100-µm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

D. Shaw and C.-W. Lin, “Coma compensation of O-ring driven liquid-filled lenses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1815), 351–364 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Test. (2)

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26(5), 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Otani, Y. Sasaki, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, G. Okazaki, K. Kawase, and S. Riken-Sendai, “Development of a prototype apparatus for inspecting illicit drugs inside envelopes,” in Joint 31st International Conference on Infrared Millimeter Waves and 14th International Conference on Teraherz Electronics, IRMMW-THz 2006, (2006), p. 173.

J. Richter, “Dielektrische Weitwinkellinsen und Speiseanordnungen für Focal Plane Array Antennen bildgebender Millimeterwellensysteme,” Ph.D. thesis (Technischen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the liquid filled variable focus lens. Side view of the lens for a higher and a lower filling level (solid and dashed lines) corresponding to a shorter and longer focal lengths f1 and f2 , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroscopic data of the medical white oil employed as the liquid for the lens body.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for scanning the profile of the THz beam after the VTL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Beam profile in the focus region for a VTL with a focal length of 73 mm (b) Gaussian fit for the intensity along the x-axis of the THz beam at z = 44 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) beam profiles for focal lengths of 143 mm and 73 mm, respectively; (c) and (d) Gaussian fits for the measured intensities along the x- and y-axis for both focal lengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Focal length of the lens for different filling levels, i.e. lens volumes. The dots represent experimental data while the solid line is the result of a calculation according to Eqs. (1) to (3).

Equations (3)

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r L = r S 2 + h 2 2 h .
V C = π h 6 ( 3 r S 2 + h 2 ) .
1 f ( V ) = ( n L 1 ) 2 r L ( V C ) .

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