Abstract

The pulse lengths of intense few-cycle (4 – 10 fs) laser pulses at 790 nm are determined in real-time using a stereographic above-threshold ionization (ATI) measurement of Xe, i.e. the same apparatus recently shown to provide a precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses. The pulse length is calibrated using spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) and roughly agrees with calculations done using quantitative rescattering theory (QRS). This stereo-ATI technique provides the information necessary to characterize the waveform of every pulse in a kHz pulse train, within the Gaussian pulse approximation, and relies upon no theoretical assumptions. Moreover, the real-time display is a highly effective tool for tuning and monitoring ultrashort pulse characteristics.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, "Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 26, 1436-1438 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Kane, "Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421-431 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, "Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, and W. Müller, "Apparatus for a fast phase measurement of few-cycle pulses," German Patent Pending, 10-2010-019-814.5 (May 5, 2010).
  24. T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, "Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, "Attosecond streaking measurements," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395-410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, "Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 26, 1436-1438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

D. J. Kane, "Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421-431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, L. A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, "Attosecond streaking measurements," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395-410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergues, B.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Betsch, K. J.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R. D. R.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De, S.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujihira, Y.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasovic, E.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haworth, C. A.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helml, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrwerth, O.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, T.

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, N. G.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. R.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, "Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421-431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Krausz, F.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le, A. T.

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Zhangjin Chen, A. T.

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Micheau, S.

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miloševic, D. B.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, T.

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, W.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathje, T.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. S.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roos, P. A.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rühle, K.

Rühle, W.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, "Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 36, 1-3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schatzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinizi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, "Attosecond streaking measurements," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395-410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senftleben, A.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, "Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, "Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweetster, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Tisch, J. W. G.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakoviev, V.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, "Attosecond streaking measurements," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395-410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. J. Kane, "Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421-431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, "Attosecond streaking measurements," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395-410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in bovethreshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields," N. J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, "Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval," Nat. Phys. 3, 52-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, "Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of fewcycle laser pulses," Nat. Phys. 5, 357-362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Rühle, W. Müller and G. G. Paulus, "Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase tagged ion momentum imaging of non-sequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, "Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 80, 061402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. T. Le, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, "Quantitative rescattering theory for laser-induced high-energy plateau photoelectron spectra," Phys. Rev. A 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Micheau, A. T. Le Zhangjin Chen, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, "Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘singlecycle’ regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetster, M. A. Krumbugel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, "Optimizing spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, L. A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, and W. Müller, "Apparatus for a fast phase measurement of few-cycle pulses," German Patent Pending, 10-2010-019-814.5 (May 5, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the beam path (FM: out-coupling focusing mirror, CM: chirped mirrors, PM: plane mirror, W1–W3: fused silica wedges, BS: beam splitter). (b) Schematic of the stereographic apparatus used to measure ATI [28]. (c) Schematic of the single-shot SPIDER setup (BS: beam splitter, E: etalon, WP: λ/2 waveplate, S: stretcher, Fm: focusing mirror, X: nonlinear crystal, A: aperture, OMA: optical multichannel analyzer) [11,12]. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Parametric asymmetry plots (PAP) for 4.02 (black), 5.70 (red), and 7.20 fs (blue). Each laser shot produces one point, 80,000 points are shown for each distribution, and the dashed circles mark the average radii for the 3 distributions. In these measurements the CEP is freely and randomly changing and uniformly distributed. (b) Radius of the PAP, r, as a function of pulse length (FWHM in intensity, Δt), where the radius is from the measured PAP and the pulse length is measured with a SPIDER (open circles). The error bars on the data points represent the standard deviation in the single-shot radial measurement and uncertainty in the pulse length measurement of the SPIDER. The data is fit with the function r = 1 – exp(−α/(Δtβ)2), where α = 9.7317 ± 1.5069, β = 1.6063 ± 0.2593, and R2 = 0.9697. Additionally, the uncertainty in the pulse length measurement using a single laser shot (squares) and the ensemble of laser shots (triangles) is displayed. Points calculated using quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) [25] for a given pulse length (filled circles) are also shown. See text for details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(d) Temporal and frequency spectra for 6.27 (top two panels) and 4.08 fs (bottom two panels) pulses derived from a SPIDER measurement. (e) Typical data for the PAP radius, r, as a function of fused silica introduced in the beam path for a few-cycle pulse with poorly balanced higher-order dispersion. (f) Same as (e) transformed to pulse length using the aforementioned r → Δt conversion. See text for details.

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