Abstract

Ribbon plastic optical fiber (POF) linked four-channel optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules have been proposed and realized featuring an excellent alignment tolerance. The two modules share a common configuration involving an optical sub-assembly (OSA) with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)/photodetectors (PDs), and their driver ICs, which are integrated onto a single printed circuit board (PCB) substrate. The OSA includes an alignment structure, a beam router and a fiber guide, which were produced by using plastic injection molding. We have accomplished a fully passive alignment between the VCSELs/PDs and the ribbon POF by taking advantage of the alignment structure that serves as a reference during the alignment of the constituent parts of the OSA. The electrical link, which largely determines the operation speed, has been remarkably shortened, due to a direct wire-bonding between the VCSELs/PDs and the driver circuits. The light sources and the detectors can be individually positioned, thereby overcoming the pitch limitations of the ribbon POF, which is made up of perfluorinated graded-index (GI) POF with a 62.5 μm core diameter. The overall alignment tolerance was first assessed by observing the optical coupling efficiency in terms of VCSEL/PD misalignment. The horizontal and vertical 3-dB alignment tolerances were about 20 μm and 150 μm for the Tx and 50 μm and over 200 μm for the Rx, respectively. The VCSEL-to-POF coupling loss for the Tx and the POF-to-PD loss for the Rx were 3.25 dB and 1.35 dB at a wavelength of 850 nm, respectively. Subsequently, a high-speed signal at 3.2 Gb/s was satisfactorily delivered via the Tx and Rx modules over a temperature range of −30 to 70°C with no significant errors; the channel crosstalk was below −30 dB. Finally, the performance of the prepared modules was verified by transmitting a 1080p HDMI video supplied by a Bluelay player to an LCD TV.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
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  3. S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, and T. Mikawa, “Low-cost optical subassembly using VCSEL pre-self-aligned with optical fiber for optical interconnect applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4516–4523 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Simple and high-accuracy integration for parallel optical subassembly with 120-Gbits/s data transmission,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 095401 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, H. Poisel, E. Hartl, S. Junger, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, B. Weickert, and H. Bauernschmitt, “HDTV data transmission over POF ribbon cables,” in Proc. POF 2007, Torino, Italy (2007), pp. 103–106.
  14. Perfluorinated graded-index ribbon POF is available from Chromis Fiberoptics Co., USA.
  15. G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. H. Hwang, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Park, “Optical subassembly with 57°-angled fiber array and silicon optical bench for VCSEL array and parallel optical transmitter module,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 63520W (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

Aoyagi, M.

Bona, G.-L.

Chai, Y. Y.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandrappan, J.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. P.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. S.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeFoster, S. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellinger,, F.

Erni, D.

Giaretta, G.

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomex, P. O.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, Y.

Hogan, W. K.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Park, “Optical subassembly with 57°-angled fiber array and silicon optical bench for VCSEL array and parallel optical transmitter module,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 63520W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imada, A.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

Jackel, H.

Johnson, G. W.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jungo, M. X.

Karst, D. L.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, Y. M.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Kromer, C.

Lacey, D. L.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Park, “Optical subassembly with 57°-angled fiber array and silicon optical bench for VCSEL array and parallel optical transmitter module,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 63520W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, D.

Liu, R. R.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. C.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Mikawa, T.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

Nakagawa, H.

Onishi, T.

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oprysko, M. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouchi, T.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaktas, H. M.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palen, E.

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. S.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

S. H. Hwang, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Park, “Optical subassembly with 57°-angled fiber array and silicon optical bench for VCSEL array and parallel optical transmitter module,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 63520W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, M. D.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramana, P. V.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramkumar, V. M.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shing, J. L. H.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sialm, G.

Son, Y. S.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

Suzuki, S.

Suzuki, T.

Tamura, M.

Tan, C. W.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teo, W. L.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trewhella, J. M.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wakazono, Y.

Wang, T.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weirick, J. A.

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, W.

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. Z.

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, and H. Sakata, “Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(3), 263–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, and T. Onishi, “High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 347–349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. H. Shing, P. O. Gomex, T. Wang, and V. M. Ramkumar, “Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 33(2), 428–432 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, and J. A. Weirick, “Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 20(3), 256–263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput.

D. A. B. Miller and H. M. Ozaktas, “Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41(1), 42–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. H. Hwang, S. H. Lee, and H. H. Park, “Optical subassembly with 57°-angled fiber array and silicon optical bench for VCSEL array and parallel optical transmitter module,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 63520W (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, and J. S. Pan, “Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906, 722906-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Palen, “Low cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647804, 647804-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, H. Poisel, E. Hartl, S. Junger, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, B. Weickert, and H. Bauernschmitt, “HDTV data transmission over POF ribbon cables,” in Proc. POF 2007, Torino, Italy (2007), pp. 103–106.

Perfluorinated graded-index ribbon POF is available from Chromis Fiberoptics Co., USA.

S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Simple and high-accuracy integration for parallel optical subassembly with 120-Gbits/s data transmission,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 095401 (2010).

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