Abstract

A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser utilizing a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber, is end-pumped by the focused emission from an 804 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array. By changing the VCSEL operating current, we demonstrated 2x adjustability in the laser output pulse energy, from 9 mJ to 18 mJ. This energy variation was attributed to changes in the angular distribution of VCSEL emission with drive current, resulting in a change in the pump intensity distribution generated by a pump-light-focusing lens.

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  1. J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Morris and C. R. Pollock, “Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 15(8), 440–442 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-Switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1890–1901 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 41–44 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Li, K. Ueda, J. Dong, M. Musha, and A. Shirakawa, “Maximum value of the pulse energy of a passively Q-switched laser as a function of the pump power,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5377–5384 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. Meng, L. Zhu, L. Qin, C. Du, X. Xu, and Z. Shao, “Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr41:YAG saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(4), 652–661 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Degen, W. Elsaber, and I. Fischer, “Transverse modes in oxide confined VCSELs: Influence of pump profile, spatial hole burning, and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 5(3), 38–47 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. J. Knopp, D. H. Christensen, G. V. Rhodes, J. M. Pomeroy, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlu, “Spatio–Spectral Mapping of Multimode Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1429–1435 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Amatya, D. Lüerßen, M. Farzaneh, and J. A. Hudgings, “Thermal Lensing in Oxide-Confined, Single-Mode VCSELs”, in Proceedings of IEEE CLEO/QELS (IEEE, 2006), paper JWB17.
  16. C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 41–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-Switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1890–1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Bass, M.

M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 41–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brickeen, B. K.

M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, M.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. L.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D. H.

D’Asaro, L. A.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Degen, C.

C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Degen, W. Elsaber, and I. Fischer, “Transverse modes in oxide confined VCSELs: Influence of pump profile, spatial hole burning, and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 5(3), 38–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-Switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1890–1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A.

Dong, J.

Du, C.

Elsaber, W.

Elsäßer, W.

C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erhard, J.

Fischer, I.

C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Degen, W. Elsaber, and I. Fischer, “Transverse modes in oxide confined VCSELs: Influence of pump profile, spatial hole burning, and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 5(3), 38–47 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, C. L.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

Gulden, K.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hasnain, G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hovel, R.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Knopp, K. J.

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liu, J.

Meng, X.

Miglo, A.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. A.

Moser, M.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

Ozygus, B.

Pollock, C. R.

Pomeroy, J. M.

Pradhan, P.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Rhodes, G. V.

Seelig, U.

Seurin, J. F.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, B. Ozygus, S. Yang, J. Erhard, U. Seelig, A. Ding, H. Weber, X. Meng, L. Zhu, L. Qin, C. Du, X. Xu, and Z. Shao, “Efficient passive Q-switching operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a Cr41:YAG saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(4), 652–661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Unlu, M. S.

Vigil, S.

M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Von Lehmen, A. C.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

Weichman, L. S.

M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J. D.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 41–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, S.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3352–3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, and M. Ilegems, “Thermal lensing effects in small oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 7–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of a Nd-doped mixed crystal Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-Switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1890–1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+: YAG as Passive Q-Switch and Brewster Plate in a Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao and M. Bass, “A generalized model for passively Q-switched laser including excited state absorption in the saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 41–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 462–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Bass, L. S. Weichman, S. Vigil, and B. K. Brickeen, “The temperature dependence of Nd3+ doped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(6), 741–748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, Polarization, and Transverse Mode Characteristics of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. F. Seurin, G. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, C. L. Ghosh, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, G. Xu, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, and L. A. D’Asaro, “High power high-efficiency 2D VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 690808(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Amatya, D. Lüerßen, M. Farzaneh, and J. A. Hudgings, “Thermal Lensing in Oxide-Confined, Single-Mode VCSELs”, in Proceedings of IEEE CLEO/QELS (IEEE, 2006), paper JWB17.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the passively Q-switched laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Q-switched laser angular divergence distribution (a) 3-D color representation, (b) horizontal and vertical line-scans through the center of the distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of (a) VCSEL pumped laser and (b) diode stack pumped laser showing pulse energy, optical efficiency, and pump duration vs. pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity distributions at the focal plane of the focusing lens for VCSEL array currents of (a) 100 A, and (b) 160 A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Line-scan intensity profiles through the center of intensity distributions of Figs. 4(a) and 4(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized near field intensity distributions for VCSEL currents of 80 A (a) and 160 A (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Q-switched laser near field intensity profiles for VCSEL currents of 80 A, 130 A and 170 A. The laser pulse energy is 9 and 18 mJ for 80 A and 170 A, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line scans (horizontal) through the center of near field intensity distributions of Fig. 7 for VCSEL currents (powers) of 80 A (235 W), 130 A (395 W) and 170 A (490 W).

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