Abstract

Diffuse and specular characteristics of the Tyvek 1025-BL material are reported with respect to their implementation in the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. This toolkit incorporates the UNIFIED model. Coefficients defined by the UNIFIED model were calculated from the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) profiles measured with a scatterometer for several angles of incidence. Results were amended with profile measurements made by a profilometer.

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References

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  1. C. Yanagisawa for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, “The Super-Kamiokande detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  501, 418462 (2003).
  2. I. Allekotte for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  586, 409–420 (2008).
  3. J. Allison for Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 - A Simulation Toolkit,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  506, 250–303 (2003).
  4. Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 Developments and Applications,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.,  53, no. 1, 270–278 (2006).
  5. G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Levin and C. Moisan, “A more physical approach to model the surface treatment of scintillation counters and its implementation in DETECT,” Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp.,  2 (1996).
  7. J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).
  8. J. O. Gichaba, “Measurements of TYVEK Reflective Properties for the Pierre Auger Project,” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Mississippi (1998).
  9. M. Janecek and W. W. Moses, “Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 964–970 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Stover, “Optical scattering : measurement and analysis,” SPIE Press (1995).
  11. G. Hausler, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T. Asakura, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer Verlag, Berlin), 74, 328342 (1999).
  12. B. F. LeLoup, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 5454–5467 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  13. Geant 4 User’s Guide For Applications Developers, Geant4 Project homepage.

2010 (1)

M. Janecek and W. W. Moses, “Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 964–970 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. F. LeLoup, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 5454–5467 (2008).
[PubMed]

I. Allekotte for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  586, 409–420 (2008).

2006 (1)

Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 Developments and Applications,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.,  53, no. 1, 270–278 (2006).

2003 (3)

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Allison for Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 - A Simulation Toolkit,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  506, 250–303 (2003).

C. Yanagisawa for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, “The Super-Kamiokande detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  501, 418462 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).

1996 (1)

A. Levin and C. Moisan, “A more physical approach to model the surface treatment of scintillation counters and its implementation in DETECT,” Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp.,  2 (1996).

Breton, V.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gichaba, J. O.

J. O. Gichaba, “Measurements of TYVEK Reflective Properties for the Pierre Auger Project,” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Mississippi (1998).

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T. Asakura, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer Verlag, Berlin), 74, 328342 (1999).

Janecek, M.

M. Janecek and W. W. Moses, “Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 964–970 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krieguer, M.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lazaro, D.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

LeLoup, B. F.

Levin, A.

A. Levin and C. Moisan, “A more physical approach to model the surface treatment of scintillation counters and its implementation in DETECT,” Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp.,  2 (1996).

Lopez, C. V.

J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).

Moisan, C.

A. Levin and C. Moisan, “A more physical approach to model the surface treatment of scintillation counters and its implementation in DETECT,” Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp.,  2 (1996).

Morel, C.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moses, W. W.

M. Janecek and W. W. Moses, “Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 964–970 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santin, G.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simon, L.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, “Optical scattering : measurement and analysis,” SPIE Press (1995).

Strul, D.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velazquez, J. C. A.

J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).

Vieira Martins, M.

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zepeda, A.

J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. (3)

Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 Developments and Applications,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci.,  53, no. 1, 270–278 (2006).

G. Santin, D. Strul, D. Lazaro, L. Simon, M. Krieguer, M. Vieira Martins, V. Breton, and C. Morel, “GATE: A Geant4-Based Simulation Platform for PET and SPECT Integrating Movement and Time Management,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 50(5), 15161521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Janecek and W. W. Moses, “Simulating Scintillator Light Collection Using Measured Optical Reflectance,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 964–970 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A (3)

C. Yanagisawa for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, “The Super-Kamiokande detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  501, 418462 (2003).

I. Allekotte for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  586, 409–420 (2008).

J. Allison for Geant4 Collaboration, “Geant4 - A Simulation Toolkit,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A,  506, 250–303 (2003).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (1)

J. C. A. Velazquez, C. V. Lopez, and A. Zepeda, “Diffuse reflectivity of Tyvek in air and water, and anisotropical effects,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B,  97 (Proc. Suppl.), 231–234 (2001).

Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. (1)

A. Levin and C. Moisan, “A more physical approach to model the surface treatment of scintillation counters and its implementation in DETECT,” Proc. IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp.,  2 (1996).

Other (4)

J. O. Gichaba, “Measurements of TYVEK Reflective Properties for the Pierre Auger Project,” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Mississippi (1998).

J. C. Stover, “Optical scattering : measurement and analysis,” SPIE Press (1995).

G. Hausler, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T. Asakura, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer Verlag, Berlin), 74, 328342 (1999).

Geant 4 User’s Guide For Applications Developers, Geant4 Project homepage.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The CASI scatterometer system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry for the definition of BRDF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light reflection on a microfacet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the surface anisotropy effect scans.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BRDF functions of Tyvek for various angles of incidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simple CASI model, (b) sample detail.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between data and the Geant4 model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface profile parameters of Tyvek.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted normalized UNIFIED parameters.

Equations (8)

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f s ( θ i , φ i ; θ s , φ s ; λ ) = δ L ( θ s , φ s ; λ ) δ E ( θ i , φ i ; λ ) = d 2 Φ s d A d Ω s cos θ s d A d Φ i d Φ s d Φ s 1 Φ i cos θ s ,
f s , corr f s cos θ s 1 Φ i J ( θ i , θ s , φ s ) ,
J ( θ i , θ s , φ s ) Φ i R ( θ i ) [ C s l g ( α s , 0 , σ α ) + C s s δ ( θ i θ s ) δ ( φ s ) + C b s δ ( θ i + θ i ) δ ( φ s ) ] + + Φ i R ( θ i ) C d l cos θ s + Φ i T ( θ t ) g ( α t , 0 , σ α ) ,
g ( α s , 0 , σ α ) = exp [ α s 2 2 σ α 2 ] = exp [ ( θ s θ i ) 2 8 σ α 2 ] .
f s , corr R ( θ i ) [ C s l g ( α s , 0 , σ α ) + C d l cos θ s ] .
d Φ s = Φ i f s , corr d Ω s = 2 π Φ i f s , corr sin θ s d θ s .
Φ s , d l = 2 π Φ i R C d l 0 π / 2 cos θ s sin θ s d θ s Φ i R k 1 C d l , Φ s , s l = 2 π Φ i R C s l 0 π / 2 exp [ ( θ s θ i ) 2 8 σ α 2 ] sin ( θ s θ i ) d ( θ s θ i ) Φ i R k 2 C s l ,
C d l , corr = Φ s , d l Φ s , d l + Φ s , c l = k 1 C d l k 1 C d l + k 2 C s l , C s l , corr = Φ s , s l Φ s , d l + Φ s , c l = k 2 C s l k 1 C d l + k 2 C s l ,

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