Abstract

A variety of efficient green, yellow, and amber monochromatic phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs) were fabricated by simply capping a long-wave pass filter (LWPF) on top of LED packing associated with each corresponding powder phosphor. In this paper, the luminous efficacy and color purity of two green, three yellow, and two amber pc-LEDs were reviewed by comparing the optical properties and current/temperature stability of each LWPF-capped pc-LED. The simple combination of LWPFs and phosphor materials in the pc-LEDs provide a simple means of addressing the low luminous efficacy problem of III-V monochromatic semiconductor LEDs in the various colors of the wavelength range between green and amber (known as the “green gap”). This technique also represents a simple approach to mitigate the sub-linearity problem of the efficacy versus the driving current occurring at a relatively low current in III-V green LEDs (known as “green droop”) to the level of a blue LED. This nano-multilayered filter-capped pc-LED can open further research into developing new color-converting materials (such as powder phosphors, and/or quantum dots) to extend the color palette in the wavelength region of the “green gap” and to improve the efficacy and color purity of color pc-LEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C.-C. Chung and J.-H. Jean, “Synthesis of Ca-α-SiAlON:Eux phosphor powder by carbothermal-reduction-nitridation process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(1), 13–15 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, H. K. Park, J. H. Oh, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. Rag, “Full down-conversion of amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with powder phosphors and a long-wave pass filter,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11063–11072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Lowering Color Temperature of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ White Light Emitting Diodes Using Reddish Light-Recycling Filter,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(1), J5–J7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chung and J.-H. Jean, “Synthesis of Ca-α-SiAlON:Eux phosphor powder by carbothermal-reduction-nitridation process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(1), 13–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Wang, P.-F. Gu, and S.-Z. Jin, “Enhancement of flip-chip white light-emitting diodes with a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 301–303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7450–7457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3(7-8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1966

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asano, K.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, P. W.

Baur, J.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergbauer, W.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A. K.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Choi, J. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C.-C.

C.-C. Chung and J.-H. Jean, “Synthesis of Ca-α-SiAlON:Eux phosphor powder by carbothermal-reduction-nitridation process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(1), 13–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daou, T. J.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de With, G.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delsing, A. C. A.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Lowering Color Temperature of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ White Light Emitting Diodes Using Reddish Light-Recycling Filter,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(1), J5–J7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7450–7457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.-F.

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gundiah, G.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hintzen, H. T.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirafune, S.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y.-D.

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jean, J.-H.

C.-C. Chung and J.-H. Jean, “Synthesis of Ca-α-SiAlON:Eux phosphor powder by carbothermal-reduction-nitridation process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(1), 13–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, P. E.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jimi, H.

K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.-Z.

Kaneda, K.

K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim Chi, T. T.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, N.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, K.-Y.

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krames, MM. R.

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laubsch, A.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Li, L.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liem, N. Q.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lugauer, H.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutgen, S.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitomo, M.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Na, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. H.

Oh, J. R.

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. D.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

Park, H. L.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pasenow, B.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rag, Y.

Reiss, P.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sabathil, M.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. J.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3(7-8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steigelmann, O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Texier, I.

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wu, J. L.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.-J.

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White Light-Emitting Diodes with Excellent Color Rendering Based on Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ Phosphors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, M. Mitomo, K. Sakuma, and N. Kimura, “Wavelength-tunable and thermally stable Li-α-sialon:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Extra high color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and nitride phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, S. H. Park, H. D. Park, and S. Y. Choi, “Application of strontium silicate yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

Y. Q. Li, A. C. A. Delsing, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence Properties of Eu2+-Activated Alkaline-Earth Silicon-Oxynitride MSi2O2-δN2+2/3δ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba): A Promising Class of Novel LED Conversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 17(12), 3242–3248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, T. J. Daou, I. Texier, T. T. Kim Chi, N. Q. Liem, and P. Reiss, “Highly Luminescent CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots for In Vivo Imaging,” Chem. Mater. 21(12), 2422–2429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. K. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

J. R. Oh, S.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Lowering Color Temperature of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ White Light Emitting Diodes Using Reddish Light-Recycling Filter,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(1), J5–J7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-Power Phosphor-Converted Light-Emitting Diodes Based on III-Nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination With Solid State Lighting Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

MM. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

Y. R. Do, K.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Na, and Y.-D. Huh, “Luminescence Properties of Potential Sr1−xCaxGa2S4:Eu Green- and Greenish-Yellow-Emitting Phosphors for White LED,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(7), H142–H146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {1122} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys.

C.-C. Chung and J.-H. Jean, “Synthesis of Ca-α-SiAlON:Eux phosphor powder by carbothermal-reduction-nitridation process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(1), 13–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi A

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, and S. W. Koch, “On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S913–S916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujiwara, H. Jimi, and K. Kaneda, “Temperature-dependent droop of electroluminescence efficiency in blue (In,Ga)N quantum-well diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S814–S817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi RRL

W. Schnick, “Shine a light with nitrides,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3(7-8), A113–A114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi RRL.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, P. J. Schmidt, H. Bechtel, C.-H. Chen, and O. Steigelmann, “All-nitride monochromatic amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL. 3(7-8), 215–217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. A. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, and D. A. Steigerwald, “Green phosphor-converted LED,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Emission color variation of M2SiO4:Eu2+ (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) phosphors for light-emitting diode,” Solid State Commun. 133(3), 187–190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the phosphor-coated LED device structure with the embedded color (green, yellow or amber) light passing through and blue light reflected from the dielectric multilayer coated glass substrate. The enlarged side view shows the basic sequence of the modified quarter-wave stacks ([0.5H(L)0.5H]9 (L: low index layer, SiO2, H: high index layer, TiO2)) of the LWPF and SEM/TEM images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The measured photoluminescent (PL) spectra of seven different green, yellow, and amber powder phosphors. (b) Measured transmittance and reflectance spectra of the two different LWPFs (L1 and L2) on glass substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The optimum concentration of each LWPF-capped pc-LEDs (a) G1, (b) G2, (C) Y1, (d) Y2, (e) Y3, (f) A1, (g) A2, (h) The measured EL spectra of a pc-LED with seven powder phosphors excited by a blue LED (with optimum phosphor concentrations for each color) capped with a LWPF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 1931 CIE color coordinates of two green, three yellow, and two amber powder phosphors. (b) 1931 CIE color coordinates of seven pc-LEDs without a LWPF and seven pc-LEDs with LWPFs. (c) Images of the seven powder phosphors (left), seven pc-LEDs without a LWPF (middle) and those with a LWPF (right). All measurements were performed under an equal amount of current (100 mA).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of the luminous efficacy of the seven different pc-LEDs with a LWPF (with the optimum concentration of phosphor for each color) as a function of the ambient temperature under an equal amount of current (100 mA). The inset shows the luminous efficacy of two amber LWPF-capped pc-LEDs at concentrations of 20 wt % and 55 wt% as a function of the ambient temperature. (b) Comparison of the brightness of the seven different colored corresponding powder phosphors as a function of the ambient temperature. (c) The measured and normalized luminous efficacy of blue/green/amber III-V semiconductor LEDs as a function of current density. (d) The measured and normalized luminous efficacy of the seven different pc-LEDs with a LWPF (with the optimum concentration of phosphor for each color) as a function of current density.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the luminous efficacy of a LWPF-capped pc-LED and a direct-emitting monochromatic semiconductor LED without phosphors as a function of the current density; (a) green color, (b) amber color.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The optical properties of various phosphors

Tables Icon

Table 2 The optical properties of various LWPF-capped pc-LEDs

Metrics