Abstract

A lenticular-type super multi-view (SMV) display normally requires an ultra high-resolution flat-panel display. To reduce this resolution requirement, two or more views are generated around each eye with an interval smaller than the pupil diameter. Cylindrical lenses constituting a lenticular lens project a group of pixels of the flat-panel display to generate a group of viewing zones. Pixel groups generating left and right viewing zones through the same cylindrical lens are partitioned to separate the two zones. The left and right pixel groups for different cylindrical lenses are interlaced horizontally. A prototype SMV display is demonstrated.

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    [PubMed]
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2010 (4)

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900U, 64900U-8 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).

Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X, 60550X-8 (2006).

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

2005 (3)

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

2002 (1)

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).

2000 (1)

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).

1997 (2)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).

Akeley, K.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

Banks, M. S.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

Brar, R. S.

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Clarke, J. A.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).

Dairiki, T.

Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X, 60550X-8 (2006).

de Ridder, H.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).

Girshick, A. R.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

Honda, T.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).

Hong, K.

Hopf, K.

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Hua, H.

Ijsselsteijn, W. A.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).

Javidi, B.

Jung, J.-H.

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).

Kamei, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).

Kikuta, K.

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900U, 64900U-8 (2007).

Kim, D.-W.

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-H.

Kwon, Y. M.

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

Lee, B.

Liu, S.

Min, S.-W.

Nagai, D.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).

Nago, N.

Nakanuma, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Park, M.-C.

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

Sexton, I.

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Shimomatsu, M.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).

Son, J.-Y.

Surman, P.

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900U, 64900U-8 (2007).

Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X, 60550X-8 (2006).

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).

Vliegen, J.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).

Watt, S. J.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

R. S. Brar, P. Surman, I. Sexton, and K. Hopf, “MUTED: Multi-user 3-D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 654–661 (2010).

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. IEEE (2)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (9)

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900U, 64900U-8 (2007).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).

Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X, 60550X-8 (2006).

S.-K. Kim, D.-W. Kim, M.-C. Park, Y. M. Kwon, and J.-Y. Son, “Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B, 63920B-9 (2006).

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).

Other (4)

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition’,” SPIE Critical Reviews CR76, p.218–249.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, S. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “A display system for natural viewing of 3-D images,” in Three-dimensional television, video and display technologies, B. Javidi, F. Okano ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2002) p.461–487.

M. Tsuboi, M. Fujioka, Y. Takaki, and T. Horikoshi, “Real Time Rendering for a Full Parallax 3D Display Using High-Density Directional Images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (IDW’06), pp. 1379–1380 (2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Super multi-view (SMV) display technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Viewing zone formation of a conventional flat-panel SMV display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Formation of viewing zones for the left and right eyes in the proposed technique: (a) n = 1; (b) n = 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Movement of left and right viewing zones.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Slanted subpixel arrangement of flat-panel display.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spot diagrams for our designed lenticular lens: Positions from the center of the viewing area are (a) 0.0 mm, (b) 10.5 mm, (c) 21.1 mm, (d) 31.6 mm, (e) 43.9 mm, (f) 56.2 mm, and (g) 68.6 mm. Radii of the spot diagrams are (a) 0.45 mm, (b) 0.45 mm, (c) 0.42 mm, (d) 0.36 mm, (e) 0.52 mm, (f) 0.82 mm, and (g) 1.19 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of our prototype SMV display.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3D images generated by our prototype SMV display: (a)–(c) and (g) –(i) are images captured at different positions in the left viewing zones, and (d)– (f) and (j)– (l) are those in the right viewing zones.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured intensity distributions in viewing zones.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Focusing on three lines at different depth positions produced by our prototype SMV display. We focused the camera on the three lines at the following distances from the screen: (a) −40 mm, (b) −20 mm, (c) 0 mm, (d) +20 mm, and (e) +40 mm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w = P / ( 2 n + 1 ) .
d = P / ( 2 n + 1 ) V .
l / l ' = w / V p .
f = l / ( 1 + w / V p ) .

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