Abstract

The dependence of thickness and concentration product (TCP) of single-wall carbon nanotubes saturable absorber (SWCNTs SA) on stabilizing and shortening pulsewidth in mode-locked fiber lasers (MLFLs) was investigated. We found that an optimized TCP for pulse energy and nonlinear self-phase modulation (SPM) enabled to determine the shorter pulsewidth and broader 3-dB spectral linewidth of the MLFLs. The shortest MLFL pulsewidth of 418 fs and broad spectral linewidth of 6 nm were obtained as the optimized TCP was 70.93 (μm•wt%), which was in good agreement with the area theorem prediction. This significant effect of TCP on pulse energy, SPM, pulsewidth, and spectral linewidth of MLFLs suggests that the TCP represents the total amount of SWCNTs in SA, which can be used as one of important and key parameters for characterizing the passive MLFL pulsewidth.

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  1. M. E. Fermann, Ultrafast Fiber Oscillators (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap.3.
  2. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 38–40 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. W. Song and S. Yamashita, “A tester for carbon nanotube mode lockers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5A5A), 3111–3113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song and S. Yamashita, “A tester for carbon nanotube mode lockers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5A5A), 3111–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

Aitchison, B.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. P.

Chang, C. M.

Chen, X. Z.

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Chiu, J. C.

Cho, W. B.

Díaz, F.

Endo, M.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. H.

Goh, C. S.

Grange, R.

Griebner, U.

Guha, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoga, E.

Itoh, M.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M.

Kamaraju, N.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kazaoui, S.

Keller, U.

Kikuchi, K.

Kim, Y. A.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Krishnamurthy, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. F.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, S.

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, J. J.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Miyashita, K.

Namiki, S.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nasibulin, A. G.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Petrov, V.

Pujol, M. C.

Rao, C. N. R.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A A. G.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakurai, T.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Schlatter, A.

Schmidt, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shimamoto, D.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song and S. Yamashita, “A tester for carbon nanotube mode lockers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5A5A), 3111–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Tanaka, Y.

Terrones, M.

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Y. W. Song and S. Yamashita, “A tester for carbon nanotube mode lockers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5A5A), 3111–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yim, J. H.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Shimamoto, T. Sakurai, M. Itoh, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, and M. Terrones, “Nonlinear optical absorption and reflection of single wall carbon nanotube thin films by Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. W. Song and S. Yamashita, “A tester for carbon nanotube mode lockers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(5A5A), 3111–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

M. E. Fermann, Ultrafast Fiber Oscillators (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap.3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup and pulse train of the MLEDFLs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The (a) modulation depth and (b) non-saturable loss as a function of TCP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Threshold pumping powers of different laser operation regimes with different TCP of SWCNTs SAs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical spectrum and (b) Spectral linewidths versus with TCP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Autocorrelator trace and (b) Pulsewidth versus with TCP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The pulsewidth and bandwidth of MLEDFL as the function of thickness (left part, with constant concentration of 37.5wt%) and concentration of concentration (with constant thickness of 136μm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Pulse energy and (b) Estimation of SPM versus with TCP.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pulsewidth as a function of TCP.

Equations (2)

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τ = 4 | D | δ W ,
δ = ( 2 π / λ ) n 2 L / A e f f ,

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