Abstract

We demonstrate a ring-resonator modulator based on a silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide with a tunability of 12.7 pm/V at RF speeds and a bandwidth of 1 GHz, for optical wavelengths near 1550 nm. Our slot waveguides were fabricated with 193 nm optical lithography, as opposed to the electron beam lithography used for previous results. The tunability is comparable to some of the best ring-based modulators making use of the plasma dispersion effect. The speed is likely limited only by resistance in the strip-loading section, and it should be possible to realize significant improvement with improved processing.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (6)

2009 (5)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Beattie, J.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

Bojko, R.

Bortnik, B.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Davids, P. S.

Ding, R.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Fetterman, H. R.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau, S.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hope, L. L.

L. L. Hope, “Theory of optical grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 5(3), 175–182 (2010).

Huang, J.

Huang, S.

Hung, Y.-C.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ka, J.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamocsai, R.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, T.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. J.

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Lawson, R.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Luo, J.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Park, M.

Patel, S. S.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polishak, B. M.

Pomerene, A.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Reshotko, M. R.

Sanchis, P.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, B.-J.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, Z.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

Sullivan, P. A.

Tazawa, H.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N. M.

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wang, G.

White, A. E.

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

Xiong, X.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

You, J. B.

Younkin, T. R.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, X.-H.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

T. Kim, J. Luo, J. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S. Jang, J. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro‐optic activities from Diels–Alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM cross-section of a slot waveguide; (b) plot of |Ex| in slot waveguide normalized to 1 Watt of propagating power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dark field optical micrograph of device; (b) transmission spectrum of device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum at various bias voltages displaying the voltage induced peak shift. Inset: linear regression of peak shifts. A tunability of 16.5 ± 0.6 pm/V is predicted based on these measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of experimental setup for: (a) 30 kHz-20 MHz range; (b) 20 MHz-5 GHz range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured normalized S21. Also shown is the projected S21 based on the DC performance of the device and the known optical losses. The black dashed line corresponds to the S21 that would be predicted based on a high-speed resonator tunability of 12.7 pm/V, and the optical losses and photodetector responsivity seen in our system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Equivalent circuit model of device (a) and differential element used for response calculation (b). Note that the capacitor in (b) corresponds to the slot waveguide, R1 corresponds to the resistance across the strip-loaded section, and R0 corresponds to the resistance around the outer edge of the ring. The lower portion of R1 is in direct contact with the center metal pad. (c) shows the configuration of the two slot waveguides near the coupling region between the add waveguide, and the ring. This is the region that is not fully charged due to a bandwidth limit at higher speeds.

Equations (6)

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S 21 = 20 log 10 [ α ( P T λ ) ( λ V ) ( V det P ) ]
V z = I ( z ) R 0
I z = ( V 0 V ( z ) ) [ R 1 + 1 i ω C ] 1
2 V z 2 α 2 V = α 2 V 0
α = R 0 R 1 + 1 i ω C
z = L 2 L 2 ( V 0 V ( z ) ) d z = V 0 2 α tanh ( α L 2 )

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