Abstract

A simple, highly accurate measurement technique for real-time monitoring of the group delay (GD) profiles of photonic dispersive devices over ultra-broad spectral bandwidths (e.g. an entire communication wavelength band) is demonstrated. The technique is based on time-domain self-interference of an incoherent light pulse after linear propagation through the device under test, providing a measurement wavelength range as wide as the source spectral bandwidth. Significant enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the self-interference signal has been observed by use of a relatively low-noise incoherent light source as compared with the theoretical estimate for a white-noise light source. This fact combined with the use of balanced photo-detection has allowed us to significantly reduce the number of profiles that need to be averaged to reach a targeted GD measurement accuracy, thus achieving reconstruction of the device GD profile in real time. We report highly-accurate monitoring of (i) the group-delay ripple (GDR) profile of a 10-m long chirped fiber Bragg grating over the full C band (~42 nm), and (ii) the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and dispersion slope (DS) profiles of a ~2-km long dispersion compensating fiber module over an ~72-nm wavelength range, both captured at a 15 frames/s video rate update, with demonstrated standard deviations in the captured GD profiles as low as ~1.6 ps.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Ramachandran, Fiber based dispersion compensation: Introduction and overview, Springer Science+Business media, LLC (2007)
  2. M. Wandel, and P. Kristensen, “Fiber designs for high figure of merit and high slope dispersion compensating fibers,” in Fiber based dispersion compensation, edited by S. Ramachandran, Springer Science+Business media, LLC (2007)
  3. C. Lin, H. Kogelnik, and L. G. Cohen, “Optical-pulse equalization of low-dispersion transmission in single-mode fibers in the 1.3–1.7-µm spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 5(11), 476–478 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Ouellette, “Dispersion cancellation using linearly chirped Bragg grating filters in optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 12(10), 847–849 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Cartledge, “Effect of modulator chirp and sinusoidal group delay ripple on the performance of systems using dispersion compensating gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(11), 1918–1923 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sumetsky, P. I. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Li, R. Deshmukh, and C. Soccolich, “Group-delay ripple correction in chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 777–779 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Dorrer, “Chromatic dispersion characterization by direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 204–206 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Soller, D. Gifford, M. Wolfe, and M. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express 13(2), 666–674 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Dorrer, “Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1417–1423 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Dorrer, “Statistical analysis of incoherent pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3341–3352 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

M. Sumetsky, P. I. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Li, R. Deshmukh, and C. Soccolich, “Group-delay ripple correction in chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 777–779 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1987 (1)

1980 (1)

Ahn, T.-J.

Azaña, J.

Boppart, S. A.

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J. C.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

Deshmukh, R.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Froggatt, M.

Gifford, D.

Jung, W.

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Li, Y.

Lin, C.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Ouellette, F.

Pafchek, R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Reyes, P. I.

Sharma, U.

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C.

Soller, B.

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Tu, H.

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Wolfe, M.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, and R. Pafchek, “Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1258–1260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shin, U. Sharma, H. Tu, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Characterization and Analysis of Relative Intensity Noise in Broadband Optical Sources for Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1057–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

S. Ramachandran, Fiber based dispersion compensation: Introduction and overview, Springer Science+Business media, LLC (2007)

M. Wandel, and P. Kristensen, “Fiber designs for high figure of merit and high slope dispersion compensating fibers,” in Fiber based dispersion compensation, edited by S. Ramachandran, Springer Science+Business media, LLC (2007)

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1551 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1418 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Working principle for the real-time ultrawide-band group-delay characterization through quasi-incoherent processing together with the experimental setup. SLD: super-luminescent laser diode; PC: polarization controller; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; ISO: isolator; MZM: Mach-Zehnder amplitude modulator; CFBG: chirped fiber Bragg grating;. MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; PD: high-speed photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Zoom of the interference pattern after balanced photo-detection (a), corresponding baseband spectrum (b), 47 times averaged simulated spectrum mapped into the time domain at the dispersive medium output (c), simulated input optical pulse (d), experimental spectrum mapped into time domain at the dispersive medium output measured by a sampling oscilloscope with no averaging (e), experimentally measured input optical pulse (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GDR profiles of the CFBG measured by (a) the proposed method with 15-repeated measurements (the azure curve shows the 15 overlapped plots while the averaged data line is shown in blue), and (b) optical vector analyzer. A single frame of the real-time video rate (15 frames/sec) update reporting the interference pattern (up) and the corresponding derivative of the time-domain phase profile, omitting its first and second-order terms (down), (c). Real-time measurement example (Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

GD profiles of the DCM measured by the proposed method with 10-repeated consecutive measurements (in azure the 10 overlapped plots; in blue their averaged data line). (a) measured GD profiles and (b) GD profiles subtracted with a linear curve fit. (c) GD profiles subtracted with the second order fit. (d) GD profiles subtracted with the third order fit. (e) measured dispersion parameter (brown color solid curve) and dispersion slope profiles (blue color solid curve) and dispersion parameter given in the specification (solid dots).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real-time GD measurement example for the DCM module. (Media 2)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the standard deviation (SD) obtained in GD measurements based on the use of (i) balanced detection and (ii) single-ended detection. The SDs are plotted with respect to the baseband frequency centered at 193.84 THz (1547.7 nm).

Metrics