Abstract

A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14 × 10−2 while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  3. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
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    [PubMed]
  5. H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  6. S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
  7. D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
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    [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

2007 (1)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (3)

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Acin, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Acín, A.

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

Anzolin, G.

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Baister, G.

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Bianco, G.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Brukner, C.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Cacciapuoti, L.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Capmany, J.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[PubMed]

Cova, S.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

de Matos, C. J.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

F¨urst, M.

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

Fedrizzi, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Furch, B.

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Fürst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Gardelein, A.

Giggenbach, D.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Hadfield, R. H.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[PubMed]

Iblisdir, S.

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

Jennewein, T.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Jofre, M.

Kofler, J.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Leeb, W.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Lo, H.-K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

Lutkenhaus, N.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Ma, X.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[PubMed]

Matos, C. J.

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Milburn, G.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Minster, O.

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Mitchell, M. W.

Molina-Terriza, G.

Nauerth, S.

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Peev, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Perdigues, J. M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Pfennigbauer, M.

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Pruneri, V.

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and V. Pruneri, “100 MHz Amplitude and Polarization Modulated Optical Source for Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution at 850 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2572–2578 (2010).

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Qi, B.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

Ralph, T.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Rarity, A.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Renner, R.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Samain, E.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Solomos, N.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Ten, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Thew, R. T.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Tittel, W.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Torres, J. P.

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and V. Pruneri, “100 MHz Amplitude and Polarization Modulated Optical Source for Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution at 850 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2572–2578 (2010).

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Toyoshima, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Valencia, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Villoresi, P.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Walmsley, I.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Weier, H.

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Weihs, G.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Zeilinger, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Zeilinger, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

Zukowski, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

Acta Astronaut. (1)

J. M. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. J. Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).

Europhys. News (1)

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Fedrizzi, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lutkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest: Experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhys. News 40, 26–29 (2009).

J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. J. Phys. (2)

S. Nauerth, M. F¨urst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” N. J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” N. J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Rarity, J. G. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

V. Scarani, S. Iblisdir, N. Gisin, and A. Acín, “Quantum cloning,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1225–1256 (2005).

Other (2)

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing 175–179 (1984).

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, “Secret Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion,” Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT ’93 765/1994, 410–423 (1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the QKD source. [LD] denotes a laser diode, [C] a single-mode in-fiber 1x2 coupler, [SOA] a semiconductor optical amplifier, [P] a free-space thin-film polarizer and [BF] a single-mode bare fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical pulse train generation. Laser driver output (upper curve, right axis) produces few-ns, negative-going pulses which drive the DFB laser briefly above threshold (dashed-line, right axis). The laser output (lower curve, left axis), shows pulses with 100 MHz repetition rate and sub-ns duration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Driving signals to the four SOAs (a) and corresponding generated optical pulses (b), as required for the implementation of the decoy state BB84 protocol. Note that the driving voltages are such that the peak optical intensities from the four SOAs are similar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generated optical pulses after extensively removing ASE using a 3nm interference filter with central peak wavelength of 852nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal (a) and spectral (b) profiles for pulses with same intensity level (high) and four different polarization states, where an offset has been introduced in the vertical axis only for visualization purposes. As expected, these show a high degree of similarity, indicating minimal distortion of the pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the QKD measurement setup. Alice module is composed of the FPS also providing a common clock signal of 10 MHz in order to synchronize Alice and Bob modules. [C] denotes a fiber to free-space collimator, [NDF] a neutral density filter, [NPBS] a non-polarizing beamsplitter, [HWP] a half-wave plate, [PBS] a polarizing beamsplitter and [SAPD] a single-photon detector.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

QKD BB84 implementing decoy states transmission results. Raw Key Rate (blue solid line), Lower Bound Secure Key Rate (red dashed line) and QBER (magenta dotted line). The detectors’ efficiency was set to 50%, background yield 5.58 × 10−4, 2 dB were accounted for losses due to the transmitting and receiving optical systems.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the QKD results for a BB84 transmission, implementing the decoy state protocol

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( X ; Y ) = Y X p ( x , y ) log ( p ( x , y ) p ( x ) p ( y ) ) d x d y
R q N μ t { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] }
H 2 ( x ) = x log 2 ( x ) ( 1 x ) log 2 ( 1 x )

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