Abstract

We describe a layered metal-dielectric waveguide, whose fundamental mode has an effective index as high as 7.35 at 1.55μm, enabling subwavelength spatial confinement. The loss is found to be reasonable in relation to the confinement. The indefinite dielectric tensor of the stratified metamaterial core generally leads to multimode operation of the waveguide, exhibiting a “reversed” mode ordering contrary to conventional waveguides. The waveguide features a strong leveraging in modal index change subject to a change of index in the dielectric layers, opening the design possibilities of very compact active electro-optic devices.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Jalali, and S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  4. K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Veronis, and S. Fan, "Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2511-2521 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. T. Schwartz, and R. Piestun, "Waveguiding in air by total external reflection from ultralow index metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1-3 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Yan, and N. A. Mortensen, "Hollow-core infrared fiber incorporating metal-wire metamaterial," Opt. Express 17, 14851-14864 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. H. Gan, and P. Lalanne, "Well-confined surface plasmon polaritons for sensing applications in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 35, 610-612 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. This picture is only absolutely valid when the waveguide under consideration is infinitely extending along x, or of slab geometry. When the waveguide width is finite, the guided mode is always hybrid with both TM and transverse-electric (TE) field components. A plasmonic mode usually has a larger portion of TM components and is therefore a TM-like mode.
  14. Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A tensor is indefinite if its three principle tensor components are not of the same sign. A medium with such a permittivity and/or permeability tensor(s) is referred to as an indefinite medium [16].
  16. D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. H. Gan, and P. Lalanne, "Well-confined surface plasmon polaritons for sensing applications in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 35, 610-612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis, and S. Fan, "Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2511-2521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Jalali, and S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. T. Schwartz, and R. Piestun, "Waveguiding in air by total external reflection from ultralow index metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1-3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elser, J.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

G. Veronis, and S. Fan, "Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2511-2521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

Gan, C. H.

Govyadinov, A. A.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikuma, Y.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, K.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, M.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Li, S.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

Piestun, R.

B. T. Schwartz, and R. Piestun, "Waveguiding in air by total external reflection from ultralow index metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1-3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sámson, Z. L.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B. T.

B. T. Schwartz, and R. Piestun, "Waveguiding in air by total external reflection from ultralow index metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1-3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. T.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, Y.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, D.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thylén, L.

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D.-P.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Wang, X.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yen, S.-C.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Schwartz, and R. Piestun, "Waveguiding in air by total external reflection from ultralow index metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1-3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, "Small-sized optical gate switch using ge2sb2te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 46, 368-369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Nanomater.

J. Elser, A. A. Govyadinov, I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Plasmonic nanolayer composites: Coupled plasmon polaritons, effective-medium response, and subdiffraction light manipulation," J. Nanomater. 2007, 79469 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci.

L. Thylén, S. He, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, "The Moore’s law for photonic integrated circuits," J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 7, 1961-1967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. R. Smith, and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, "Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (RRL)

Z. L. Sámson, S.-C. Yen, K. F. MacDonald, K. Knight, S. Li, D. W. Hewak, D.-P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, "Chalcogenide glasses in active plasmonics," Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 4, 274-276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

This picture is only absolutely valid when the waveguide under consideration is infinitely extending along x, or of slab geometry. When the waveguide width is finite, the guided mode is always hybrid with both TM and transverse-electric (TE) field components. A plasmonic mode usually has a larger portion of TM components and is therefore a TM-like mode.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

A tensor is indefinite if its three principle tensor components are not of the same sign. A medium with such a permittivity and/or permeability tensor(s) is referred to as an indefinite medium [16].

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the waveguide cross-section. The blue region (air) is the cladding. Inset shows the multilayer medium in bulk. (b) Indices ( and neff) versus wavelength, and (c) Losses versus wavelength for a layered medium in bulk when examined in the MGT limit, and for the fundamental modes guided repectively by a slab and a stripe waveguides based on the layered medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The field patterns for the fundamental mode at 1.55μm. Domain: 300 × 300nm2. Values are in SI units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference in the effective mode index when the dielectric index changes from 3 to 3.1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion (a) and loss (b) curves of 5 modes guided in the waveguide. The mode numbers, from the fundamental mode to the highest-order mode, are denoted as 1 to 5 correspondingly. Insets show the Hx field distributions for the high-order modes.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ɛ y = ɛ m ɛ d f d ɛ m + f m ɛ d ,
ɛ x = ɛ z = f m ɛ m + f d ɛ d ,
2 H x y 2 = ɛ z ( n eff 2 ɛ y 1 ) k 0 2 H x ,

Metrics