Abstract

We present the first detailed demonstrations of octave-spanning SC generation in all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fibers (ANDi PCF) in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The resulting spectral profiles are extremely flat without significant fine structure and with excellent stability and coherence properties. The key benefit of SC generation in ANDi PCF is the conservation of a single ultrashort pulse in the time domain with smooth and recompressible phase distribution. For the first time we confirm the exceptional temporal properties of the generated SC pulses experimentally and demonstrate their applicability in ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations, which are used to illustrate the SC generation dynamics by self-phase modulation and optical wave breaking. To our knowledge, we present the broadest spectra generated in the normal dispersion regime of an optical fiber.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Coherent and sequential contributions to femtosecond transient absorption spectra of a rhodamine dye in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(4), 044502 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. M. Heidt, “Pulse preserving flat-top supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 550–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, “Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 11(21), 2697–2703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Andersen, T. V.

Anderson, D.

Andresen, E. R.

Bang, O.

Bartelt, H.

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bettachini, V. A.

A. A. Rieznik, A. M. Heidt, P. G. König, V. A. Bettachini, and D. F. Grosz, “Optimum integration procedures for supercontinuum simulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted to).

Birkedal, V.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, “Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 11(21), 2697–2703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desaix, M.

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobryakov, A. L.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Coherent and sequential contributions to femtosecond transient absorption spectra of a rhodamine dye in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(4), 044502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ernsting, N. P.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Coherent and sequential contributions to femtosecond transient absorption spectra of a rhodamine dye in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(4), 044502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, P.

Finot, C.

Frosz, M. H.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosz, D. F.

A. A. Rieznik, A. M. Heidt, P. G. König, V. A. Bettachini, and D. F. Grosz, “Optimum integration procedures for supercontinuum simulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted to).

Gu, X.

Hansen, K. P.

Hartung, A.

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heidt, A. M.

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, “Pulse preserving flat-top supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 550–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Rieznik, A. M. Heidt, P. G. König, V. A. Bettachini, and D. F. Grosz, “Optimum integration procedures for supercontinuum simulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted to).

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Hult, J.

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

Kibler, B.

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, P. G.

A. A. Rieznik, A. M. Heidt, P. G. König, V. A. Bettachini, and D. F. Grosz, “Optimum integration procedures for supercontinuum simulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted to).

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovalenko, S. A.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Coherent and sequential contributions to femtosecond transient absorption spectra of a rhodamine dye in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(4), 044502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristiansen, R.

Larsen, J. J.

Lisak, M.

Megerle, U.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, C. K.

O’Shea, P.

Paulsen, H. N.

Provost, L.

Pugliesi, I.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quiroga-Teixeiro, M. L.

Riedle, E.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rieznik, A. A.

A. A. Rieznik, A. M. Heidt, P. G. König, V. A. Bettachini, and D. F. Grosz, “Optimum integration procedures for supercontinuum simulations,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted to).

Rohwer, E.

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailer, C. F.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, C.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A.

Shreenath, A. P.

Thøgersen, J.

Trebino, R.

Wabnitz, S.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R.

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Zeek, E.

Zewail, A. H.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Coherent and sequential contributions to femtosecond transient absorption spectra of a rhodamine dye in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(4), 044502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. Rohwer, and H. Bartelt, “Infrared, visible and ultraviolet broadband coherent supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7839, 78390X, 78390X-4 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, and H. Bartelt, “Deep ultraviolet supercontinuum generation in optical nanofibers by femtosecond pulses at 400 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 7714, 771407-771409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. M. Dudley, and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “All-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for coherent supercontinuum generation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CTuX4.

Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber NL-1050-NEG-1, http://www.nktphotonics.com

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Measured dispersion parameter and calculated MFD for PCF A with design parameters Λ = 1.44 μm, d/Λ = 0.39 and 2.3 μm core diameter. b) For PCF B, both dispersion and MFD are calculated. The fiber has design parameters Λ = 0.67 μm, d/Λ = 0.6 and 1.05 μm core diameter. The insets show scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of the respective PCF cross sections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally recorded supercontinuum spectra after 0.5 m of PCF A in dependence of the pulse energy for a central pump wavelength of 1050 nm (a) and 790 nm (b). The pump pulse duration is in the order of 50 fs in all cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Comparison of simulated and experimental spectra for both 790 nm and 1050 nm pumping. b) Simulated spectral evolution for the 8 nJ pump pulse at 790 nm in a logarithmic density plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated spectrogram representation of the pulse evolution at different propagation lengths inside the ANDi PCF with projected temporal and spectral intensity profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measured and simulated spectra generated in a 18 cm piece of PCF B pumped with 50 fs pulses at 650 nm and 790 nm. The pulse energy at the fiber end was measured to 1.1 nJ (650 nm) and 0.9 nJ (790 nm), respectively. Experimentally determined losses are quantified on the right ordinate. b) If the fiber length is increased to 50 cm, the generated SC spectrum does not contain any components at the pump wavelength of 790 nm. Here the pulse energy at the fiber end is 0.6 nJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Simulated evolution of the SC spectrum over propagation distance through PCF B when pumped at 790 nm. The properties of the input pump pulse are identical to Fig. 5 a). b) Simulated spectrogram of the SC pulse after 1.1 cm of propagation

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Experimental setup of the transient absorption spectroscopy experiment used to determine the temporal characteristics of the generated SC pulse. b) Experimentally recorded normalized transmission TN of a Rhodamine 700 / Stryryl 9 mixture dissolved in methanol in dependence of wavelength and time delay between pump and probe pulse. c) Comparison of chirp determined from b) and extracted from a spectrogram simulation matching the experimental conditions. The time delay is arbitrarily set to zero for the input wavelength into the ANDi fiber of 775 nm. Note that wavelengths at earlier time delays propagate at the trailing edge of the SC pulse, which is contrary to the usual convention.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Simulated first order coherence function | g 12 ( 1 ) | ( λ ) for the SC generated with 150 fs, 5 nJ pulses at 775 nm used for the UTAS measurement in Fig. 7. b) Pulse-to pulse spectral intensity fluctuations extracted from Fig. 7b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results for 790 nm, 8 nJ, 50 fs pumping of PCF A compared with corresponding simulations assuming a constant nonlinear parameter γ ( ω ) = γ ( ω 0 ) and frequency dependent γ ( ω ) , taking into account the full variation of the MFD shown in Fig. 1.

Equations (2)

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ω F W M = 2 ω p u m p ω s e e d
T N ( Δ t , λ ) = I * ( Δ t , λ ) I 0 ( λ ) ,

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