Abstract

The various surface texturing effects of InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated by comparison of experimented data and simulated data. The single-layer and double-layer texturing were performed with the help of ITO nanospheres using wet etching, where the ITO ohmic contact layer and the p-GaN layer are textured using ITO nanospheres as an etch mask. In case of single-layer texturing, p-type GaN layer texturing was more effective than ITO ohmic contact layer texturing. The maximum enhancement of wall-plug efficiency of double-layered textured LEDs is 40% more than conventional LEDs, after packaging at an injected current of 20 mA. The increase of light scattering at the textured GaN surfaces is a major reason for increasing the light extraction efficiency of LEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asami, S.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. M.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. S.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. H.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. Y.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H. C.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. G.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y. H.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joo, J.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. S.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, T.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. S.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. H.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, T. F.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, S.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohwaki, T.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. M.

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, S.

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, H. C. Feng, C. W. Kuo, C. M. Chen, L. W. Wu, and G. C. Chi, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with meshed p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 142115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Hong, S. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. H. Lee, J. O. Song, J. H. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by a one-dimensional nanopatterning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori, T. Kozawa, T. Ohwaki, Y. Taga, S. Nagai, S. Yamasaki, S. Asami, N. Shibata, and M. Koike, “Schottky barriers and contact resistances on p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(23), 3537 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. Joo, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Enhancement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN LEDs with Nanoroughed Hemispherical Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Ohmic Contacts,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(2), D1–D3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, B. S. Cheng, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, T. F. Liao, and C. S. Chang, “Enhanced Light Extraction in Wafer-Bonded AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes via Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Horng, Y. L. Tsai, T. M. Wu, D. S. Wuu, and C. H. Chao, “Investigation of Light Extraction of InGaN LEDs With Surface-Textured Indium Tin Oxide by Holographic and Natural Lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1327–1331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C. H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Output Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of surface texturing steps involved in the fabrication of GaN-based LEDs with different textured surfaces. (a) Conventional LED with a flat ITO ohmic contact and p-type GaN layer (Sample A), (b) LED with textured ITO ohmic contact layer (Sample B), (c) LED with textured p-type GaN layer (Sample C), and (d) LED with textured double layer (Sample D).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the top view and the receptive cross-sectional view are placed as insets (a-b) Sample B, (c-d) Sample C, and (e-f) Sample D, respectively. The right-side SEM images are taken after the evaporation of 200 nm thick ITO films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Sample A-D. The insets shown light emission images of Sample A-D at 0.1mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance intensity of four different LED chips versus the forward injection current. (a) Intensity measured from the front side of the LED chips. (b) Intensity measured from the backside of the LED chips.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light intensity versus the different samples of experimental results and simulated data. Light Intensity was compared (a) at the front side and (b) at the backside.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic diagram of different receiver placement at and around the LED. Schematic diagram of light paths at the air/ITO/GaN interface: (b) Sample A, (c) Sample B, (d) Sample C, and (e) Sample D.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Light output intensities of Samples A, B, C, and D after packaging at an injection current of 20 mA. (b) Beam profile diagrams of Samples A, B, C, and D.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Number of Detected Rays Received at Each Receiver

Equations (1)

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I d V d I = R s I + k T / q

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