Abstract

When replacing a bulk negative index material (NIM) with two resonant surfaces that allow for surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagation it is possible to recreate the same near-field imaging effects as with Pendry’s perfect lens. We show that a metallic meander structure is perfectly suited as such a resonant surface due to the tunability of the short (SRSPP) and long range surface plasmon (LRSPP) frequencies by means of geometrical variation. Furthermore, the Fano-type pass band between the SRSPP and LRSPP frequencies of a single meander sheet retains its dominant role when being stacked. Hence, the pass band frequency position, which is determined by the meander geometry, controls also the pass band of a meander stack. When building up stacks with different periodicities the pass band shifts in frequency for each sheet in a different way. We rigorously calculate the spectra of various meander designs and show that this shift can be compensated by changing the remaining geometrical parameters of each single sheet. We also present a basic idea how high- transmission stacks with different periodicities can be created to enable energy transfer at low loss over practically arbitrary distances inside such a stack. The possibility to stack meander sheets of varying periodicity might be the key to far field superlenses since a controlled transformation of evanescent modes to traveling wave modes of higher diffraction order could be enabled.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. V. Alekseyev and E. Narimanov, “Slow light and 3D imaging with non-magnetic negative index systems,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11184–11193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Durant, Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, and X. Zhang, “Theory of the transmission properties of an optical far-field superlens for imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2383 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Maslovski and S. Tretyakov, “Phase conjugation and perfect lensing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4241 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. Alitalo, “Near-field enhancement and imaging in double planar polariton-resonant structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. R. Simovski, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Resonator mode in chains of silver spheres and its possible application,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(6), 066606 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
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  14. P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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  15. L. Li, “Use of Fourier series in the analysis of discontinuous periodic structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(9), 1870 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Granet, “Reformulation of the lamellar grating problem through the concept of adaptive spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2510 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmons on thin silver gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, and W. Osten, “Coupling between surface plasmons and Fabry-Pérot modes in metallic double meander structures,” in Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7711 2010, p. 77111F.
  23. C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmons on thin silver gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Durant, Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, and X. Zhang, “Theory of the transmission properties of an optical far-field superlens for imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2383 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Alekseyev and E. Narimanov, “Slow light and 3D imaging with non-magnetic negative index systems,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11184–11193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. R. Simovski, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Resonator mode in chains of silver spheres and its possible application,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(6), 066606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. Alitalo, “Near-field enhancement and imaging in double planar polariton-resonant structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maslovski and S. Tretyakov, “Phase conjugation and perfect lensing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Alitalo, P.

P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. Alitalo, “Near-field enhancement and imaging in double planar polariton-resonant structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmons on thin silver gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Durant, S.

Edwards, B.

B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, N. A.

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gräbeldinger, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Granet, “Reformulation of the lamellar grating problem through the concept of adaptive spatial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, I. R.

Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmons on thin silver gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, Z.

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Liu, N.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Durant, Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, and X. Zhang, “Theory of the transmission properties of an optical far-field superlens for imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2383 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslovski, S.

S. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. Alitalo, “Near-field enhancement and imaging in double planar polariton-resonant structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Maslovski and S. Tretyakov, “Phase conjugation and perfect lensing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E.

Nishioka, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmons on thin silver gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarrazin, M.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Negative permeability around 630 nm in nanofabricated vertical meander metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(11), 3886–3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silveirinha, M.

B. Edwards, A. Alù, M. E. Young, M. Silveirinha, and N. Engheta, “Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero metamaterial coupling and energy squeezing using a microwave waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simovski, C. R.

P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Simovski, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Resonator mode in chains of silver spheres and its possible application,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(6), 066606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. M.

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Maslovski and S. Tretyakov, “Phase conjugation and perfect lensing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4241 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S. A.

P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Simovski, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Resonator mode in chains of silver spheres and its possible application,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(6), 066606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. Alitalo, “Near-field enhancement and imaging in double planar polariton-resonant structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J.-P.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viitanen, A.

P. Alitalo, C. R. Simovski, A. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging in the optical region using a pair of two-dimensional arrays of metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viitanen, A. J.

C. R. Simovski, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Resonator mode in chains of silver spheres and its possible application,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(6), 066606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Efficient calculation of the optical properties of stacked metamaterials with a Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, H. Schweizer, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of metallic meanders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M. E.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometrical parameters for (a) a single meander sheet and (b) a stack consisting of i meander sheets with varying geometric parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission, reflection and absorption spectra of a single meander structure (t = 20 nm, D = 50 nm, P x = 400 nm) at perpendicular incidence. (b) Dispersion diagram (extinction) of the same structure. The k x axis is scaled by the grating vector K g, which is determined by 2π / P x. The pass band between the SRSPP (f = 500 THz, λ = 600 nm) and LRSPP (f = 700 THz, λ = 428 nm) modes occurs due to Fano-type interaction. The inset in (b) shows the dispersion diagram of the transmission for the same structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction (-ln(T)) of a single meander sheet as a function of frequency and (a) meander thickness t, (b) meander depth D and (c) periodicity P x. The geometrical parameters of the structures are (a) P x = 400 nm, D = 50 nm, (b) P x = 400 nm, t = 20 nm and (c) t = 20 nm, D = 40 nm. In all cases the SRSPP mode shows a stronger dependence on the respective geometrical parameter than the LRSPP mode. Especially for higher D, the SRSPP is far less dependent on the periodicity P x of the grating (not shown).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RCWA simulations of the pass band evolution of a meander stack with t = t 1 = t 2 = 20 nm and P x = P x,1 = P x,2 = 400 nm in dependence of the meander depth D = D 1 = D 2 for perpendicular incidence. The dashed black lines represent the predicted FP modes from Eq. (1) while the dashed white lines indicate the SRSPP/LRSPP frequencies determined by dispersion diagram analysis (not shown). For small depths (a) the FP modes prevail in the optical response whereas for higher D (b) both plasmon frequencies shift to red (the SRSPP one more strongly) and interact more with the FP modes. For D = 50 nm (c) the coupling between FP and plasmon modes is strongest and maximum transmission is exhibited in the same area as for the single meander sheet. The SRSPP/LRSPP modes dominate the overall bandwidth behaviour of the meander stack. With further increasing meander depth (d) the coupling becomes weaker again.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field intensity behind a slit with w = 100 nm and a double meander stack with P x = 400 nm, t = 20 nm, D = 50 nm and D spa = 200 nm. The inset on the upper left side shows the electric field intensity along the x-axis at the focus plane. The inset on the lower right shows the electric field intensity at a distance of about 2 wavelengths (λ = 500 nm) behind the structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission of a meander stack designed to work around f = 820 THz (λ = 365 nm) as a function of frequency f and D spa. The top sheet is defined by t 1 = 20 nm, D 1 = 25 nm and P x,1 = 250 nm and works in its pass band. The bottom sheet is defined by t 2 = 14 nm, D 2 = 40 nm, P x,2 = 500 nm and works in its higher bands. (b) Dispersion diagram of the same stack but for a particular distance D spa,1 = 110 nm between the sheets. The meander stack shows high transmittance within a broad spectral range, and the k-filtering of the combined interaction of top and bottom meander gratings is clearly visible. Please note that the values of k x are normalized by the grating vector K g with the larger periodicity P x,2 = 500 nm, hence K g = 2π / P x,2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmission curves of meander sheets with different periodicities P x but equal values for the thickness t and corrugation depth D. With increasing P x the pass band shifts to lower frequencies. In stacks with two different periodicities P x,1 = 250 nm and P x,2 = 400 nm this can be compensated by (b) decreasing the thickness t 1 or increasing the depth D 1 or by (c) increasing t 2 and decreasing D 2 respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion diagrams showing the transmission of single meander sheets with different geometric parameters (given in titles) over f and k x. The black dashed line represents the frequency where the pass band is designed to occur in the combined stack (f = 650 THz, λ = 484 nm). The arrows mark the regions where neighboring SPP modes interact with cavity plasmon polaritons in the pass band.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Transmission of a meander stack as a function of frequency and D spa. The stack consists of four sheets with different geometries (compare Fig. 8) and is optimized for highest direct transmission around f = 650 THz (λ = 484 nm). (b) Dispersion diagram of the same stack but with a particular distance D spa = D spa,1 = D spa,2 = D spa,3 = 370 nm between the sheets. The k x values are divided by the largest grating vector K g = 2π / P x,4 occurring in the meander stack with P x,4 = 400 nm.

Equations (1)

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D spa = c ( π m φ ( f ) ) 2 π f cos θ ( 1 t P x ) D .

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