Abstract

An optically-controlled terahertz (THz) modulator based on nonlinear photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed, which has the merits of high speed, compactness and easy integration. The PC structure consists of point and line defects. High speed modulation of THz wave can be realized by filling one of the point defects with organic polymer polyaniline which has rapid nonlinear response time. Simulation results show that the modulation rate, modulation depth and insertion loss of the modulator achieve 2.5 GHz, 20.3 dB and 1.02 dB, respectively.

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References

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  1. T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, H. Němec, and P. Kužel, “Fast one-dimensional photonic crystal modulators for the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8898–8912 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. S. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 98–101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).
  6. J. S. Li, J. He, and Z. Hong, “Terahertz wave switch based on silicon photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5034–5037 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Z. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, THz Science and Technology and Application (Peking University Press, Beijing, 2007) (in Chinese).
  9. E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ando and H. Matsupa, “Optical third harmonic generation in polyanline cast films,” Polym. J. 25(4), 417–420 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Su and H. M. Chen, “Terahertz wave modulator based on the liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30(9), 2710–2713 (2010) (in Chinese).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Su and H. M. Chen, “Terahertz wave modulator based on the liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30(9), 2710–2713 (2010) (in Chinese).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

1998 (1)

A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Ando and H. Matsupa, “Optical third harmonic generation in polyanline cast films,” Polym. J. 25(4), 417–420 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Ando and H. Matsupa, “Optical third harmonic generation in polyanline cast films,” Polym. J. 25(4), 417–420 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. M.

J. Su and H. M. Chen, “Terahertz wave modulator based on the liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30(9), 2710–2713 (2010) (in Chinese).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fegotin, A.

A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, L.

Ghattan, Z.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Godin, Y.

A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasek, T.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

He, Z. Q.

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z.

Jenekhe, S. A.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kužel, P.

Li, J. S.

MacDiarmid, A. G.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsupa, H.

M. Ando and H. Matsupa, “Optical third harmonic generation in polyanline cast films,” Polym. J. 25(4), 417–420 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meth, J. S.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miane, J. L.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, H.

Nguema, E.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osaheni, J. A.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shahabadi, M.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

J. Su and H. M. Chen, “Terahertz wave modulator based on the liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30(9), 2710–2713 (2010) (in Chinese).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vigneras, V.

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vitebsky, I.

A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. D.

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

Wang, Y. S.

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

Wilk, R.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Q.

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

J. Su and H. M. Chen, “Terahertz wave modulator based on the liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30(9), 2710–2713 (2010) (in Chinese).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room Temperature operation of an electrically driven Terahertz Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Polym. J. (1)

E. Nguema, V. Vigneras, J. L. Miane, and P. Mounaix, “Dielectric properties of conducting polyaniline films by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Eur. Polym. J. 44(1), 124–129 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. A. Osaheni, S. A. Jenekhe, H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, Y. Sun, and A. G. MacDiarmid, “Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(7), 2830–2836 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. S. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 98–101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4623–4625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Fegotin, Y. Godin, and I. Vitebsky, “Two-dimensional tunable photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 57(5), 2841–2848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Physics (1)

D. D. Wang, Y. S. Wang, X. Q. Zhang, and Z. Q. He, “Tunable band gaps in photonic crystals,” Physics 32, 757–761 (2003) (in Chinese).

Polym. J. (1)

M. Ando and H. Matsupa, “Optical third harmonic generation in polyanline cast films,” Polym. J. 25(4), 417–420 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Z. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, THz Science and Technology and Application (Peking University Press, Beijing, 2007) (in Chinese).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The structure model of THz wave modulator with (a) the schematic diagram of the modulator and (b) the structure parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The resonant frequency of the point defect with (a) n = 1.50 and (b) n = 1.55.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of “off” (n = 1.50, solid line) and “on” (n = 1.55, dashed line) states.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time domain steady-state response of (a) “on” state and (b) “Off” state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady field distribution of (a) “on” and (b) “Off” states.

Equations (2)

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n= n 0 +Δn= n 0 + n 2 I
η = 10 log ( I max / I min )

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