Abstract

We demonstrate an alternative approach for attosecond polarization gating. A setup composed of four quartz wedges and a quarter-wave plate allows an easy adjustment of the temporal gate-width and of the total dispersion. A numerical simulation of the pulse propagation beyond the carrier-envelope approximation enables a calibration of the setup and provides a flexible choice of the desired temporal polarization. An electron imaging spectrometer is used to measure the electron momentum distribution resulting from the ionization of xenon with our optical gated laser pulses. This allows us to measure the orientation of the polarization plane in the most intense temporal slice of the laser pulse. We compare the experimental results to theory and we numerically show the robustness of the method against non-ideal laser parameters.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(3), R1–R56 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033001 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. T. Kim, K. S. Kang, M. N. Park, T. Imran, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Self-compression of attosecond high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. S. Budil, P. Salières, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19(22), 1870–1872 (1994).
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  13. M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 2933–2936 (1995).
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  14. M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
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  15. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. Peralta Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063816 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
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  19. V. T. Platonenko and V. V. Strelkov, “Single attosecond soft-x-ray pulse generated with a limited laser beam,’,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 435–440 (1999).
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  20. I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2-3), 277–283 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Deschamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Strelkov, A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 879–884 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, E. Constant, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-resolved measurements of high order harmonics confined by polarization gating,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 869–872 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. G. Rykovanov, M. Geissler, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025025 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 093902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Bordas, F. Pauling, H. Helm, and D. L. Huestis, “Photoelectron imaging spectrometry: Principle and inversion method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(6), 2257–2268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. V. Schyja, T. Lang, and H. Helm, “Channel switching in above-threshold ionization of xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 57(5), 3692–3697 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  39. R. Wiehle and B. Witzel, “Correlation between double and nonresonant single ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(22), 223002 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. See, for example, Newlight Photonics website: http://www.newlightphotonics.com/quartz-crystal.html
  41. K. Iizuka, Elements of Photonics, Volume 1: In Free space and Special Media (John Wiley & Sons, 2002), pp. 439–440.
  42. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(23), 233901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Rykovanov, M. Geissler, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. Peralta Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. T. Kim, K. S. Kang, M. N. Park, T. Imran, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Self-compression of attosecond high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2-3), 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(3), R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, E. Constant, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-resolved measurements of high order harmonics confined by polarization gating,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 869–872 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Strelkov, A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 879–884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Deschamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Wiehle and B. Witzel, “Correlation between double and nonresonant single ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(22), 223002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Schyja, T. Lang, and H. Helm, “Channel switching in above-threshold ionization of xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 57(5), 3692–3697 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Bordas, F. Pauling, H. Helm, and D. L. Huestis, “Photoelectron imaging spectrometry: Principle and inversion method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(6), 2257–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19(22), 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A.

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandulet, H.-C.

H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(3), R1–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. Peralta Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025018 (2008).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
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H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
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H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
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C. Bordas, F. Pauling, H. Helm, and D. L. Huestis, “Photoelectron imaging spectrometry: Principle and inversion method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(6), 2257–2268 (1996).
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Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
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K. S. Budil, P. Salières, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
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Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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Chang, Z.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2-3), 277–283 (2005).
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Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043802 (2004).
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D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. Peralta Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
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Chini, M.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
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H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
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A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, E. Constant, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-resolved measurements of high order harmonics confined by polarization gating,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 869–872 (2004).
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V. Strelkov, A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 879–884 (2004).
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O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Deschamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
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M. Kovačev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, “Temporal confinement of the harmonic emission through polarization gating,” Eur. J. Phys. D 26(1), 79–82 (2003).
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Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Corkum, P. B.

H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
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M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 2933–2936 (1995).
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P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19(22), 1870–1872 (1994).
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I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
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V. Strelkov, A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 879–884 (2004).
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R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
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R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
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O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Deschamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
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Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063816 (2005).
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H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
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Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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Elouga, L. B.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
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A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(3), R1–R56 (2005).
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Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
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R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
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Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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Fleischer, A.

H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013803 (2010).
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R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033001 (2005).
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C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
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Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Geissler, M.

S. G. Rykovanov, M. Geissler, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025025 (2008).
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Ghimire, S.

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2-3), 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67(6), 063405 (2003).
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V. Schyja, T. Lang, and H. Helm, “Channel switching in above-threshold ionization of xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 57(5), 3692–3697 (1998).
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C. Bordas, F. Pauling, H. Helm, and D. L. Huestis, “Photoelectron imaging spectrometry: Principle and inversion method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(6), 2257–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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Huestis, D. L.

C. Bordas, F. Pauling, H. Helm, and D. L. Huestis, “Photoelectron imaging spectrometry: Principle and inversion method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(6), 2257–2268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, “Images of photoelectrons formed in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(21), 3221–3224 (1993).
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K. T. Kim, K. S. Kang, M. N. Park, T. Imran, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Self-compression of attosecond high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223904 (2007).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

Johnsson, P.

I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, E. Constant, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-resolved measurements of high order harmonics confined by polarization gating,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 869–872 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalpouzos, C.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063816 (2005).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
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I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
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I. J. Sola, A. Zaïr, R. López-Martens, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, E. Cormier, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(1), 013810 (2006).
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V. Strelkov, A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of attosecond pulses with ellipticity-modulated fundamental,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 879–884 (2004).
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A. Zaïr, O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, E. Constant, R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-resolved measurements of high order harmonics confined by polarization gating,” Appl. Phys. B 78(7-8), 869–872 (2004).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
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Nat. Phys.

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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
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Other

See, for example, Newlight Photonics website: http://www.newlightphotonics.com/quartz-crystal.html

K. Iizuka, Elements of Photonics, Volume 1: In Free space and Special Media (John Wiley & Sons, 2002), pp. 439–440.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the whole experimental setup. The polarization gating setup including four quartz wedges and an achromatic quarter-wave plate is indicated. The third wedge (green) is translated to vary the gate width, while the second and the fourth (red) fix the dispersion. (a) The polarizer and the spectrometer are used to perform the calibration of the wedge insertion. (b) The achromatic half-wave plate is used to measure the orientation θ of the linear polarization gate with respect to the lab coordinates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of our polarization gating setup. The optical axes of the different quartz wedges (labelled ne) at ± 45° are represented by blue lines. The fast axis of the achromatic quarter-wave plate (red) makes an angle ψ with the horizontal plane. Schematic representation of the laser pulse electric field polarization is given before (top left) and after (bottom right) the setup for L = 168 μm of quartz and for ψ = 0°. The “linear” part of the pulse, which shows an ellipticity below 0.15, is highlighted in green.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization ellipse and its orientation with respect to the lab frame of reference. Definitions: X and Y are the lab coordinates and lie in the horizontal and in the vertical planes, respectively; a and b are the length of the major and minor axes, respectively; x and y are the principal axes of the ellipse, rotated by an angle θ from the lab coordinates; A and B are the projections of the ellipse on the lab coordinates; and α and β are angles that are intermediate steps in the calculation (see Eqs. (8)-(11)).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Definition of the delay (τd) between the o- and e-waves in quartz. (b) Definition of the gate width (τgate) and the threshold ellipticity (εth). (c) Delay and gate width computed for the simulation parameters of the next section (see Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization maps at the output of the polarization gating setup for ψ = 0°. The independent variable is the quartz thickness (L) in millimeters.(a) I(t), (b) ε(t), (c) θ(t) in degrees, (d) A(t) and (e) B(t) in arbitrary units, (f) θ(ω) in degrees, (g) A(ω) and (h) B(ω) in arbitrary units. Direct experimentally accessible maps are θ(ω), A(ω), and B(ω), while a cross-section of θ(t) near t = 0 is possible via electron imaging.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Orientation θ of the most intense part of the polarization gated pulse as a function of the quartz thickness. The angle θ is unwrapped for a better visualization. Dots: measurement for three different experimental days. Solid line: simulation with the ideal parameters of Fig. 5. Dashed line: simulation with the experimental spectrum (Fig. 10), no dispersion compensation and the real wavelength-dependent behavior of the quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Robustness of the polarization gated pulses against experimental flaws and sources of error. The left column shows contour plots of the ellipticity ε(t). The central column shows intensity profiles in arbitrary units and the right column contains the orientation of the major axis θ(t) in the lab coordinates. (a) Ideal conditions (repetition of Fig. 5) (b) The input polarization is linear at 5° from X. (c) The fast axis of the quarter-wave plate is at ψ = 5°. (d) Experimental spectrum. (e) Dispersion is not compensated. (f) Real wavelength-dependence of the quarter-wave plate. (g) Spectral phase is distorted by higher-order terms: −80 fs3, −40 fs4 and + 200 fs5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental ((a) and (b)) and simulated ((c) and (d)) projections of the laser spectrum on the lab coordinates. By a simple fit to theory, the zero insertion is found on the experimental delay stage. Notice the symmetry of the traces around L = 0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the gate width by rotating the quarter wave plate. Other simulation parameters are identical to those of Fig. 5. See text for details.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-dimensional photoelectron spectra induced by ultrashort polarization gated laser pulses for three different orientations of the gate. The electric field in the gate (ε<0.15) is represented in green. The laser propagates in the + Z-direction and the dc-field is directed along + X. (Left) The gate is along the Y-axis. (Center) The gate is oriented at 45°. (Right) The gate is polarized along the X-axis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ideal (solid red line) and experimental (solid black line) spectra used for the numerical simulations.

Equations (12)

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τ d = L ( 1 / v g , e 1 / v g , o )
E ( t ) = E X ( t ) a ^ X + E Y ( t ) a ^ Y
E X ( t ) = Re { E ˜ X ( t ) } = Re { 1 N i = 1 N A X ( ω i ) exp [ j ( ω i t + ϕ X ( ω i ) ) ] }
A X ( ω i ) = A 0 exp ( 2 ln 2 ( ω i ω 0 ) 2 Δ ω F W H M 2 )
φ X ( ω i ) | z = 0 = φ 0 1 2 k ' ' L ( ω ω 0 ) 2 1 6 k ' ' ' L ( ω ω 0 ) 3 1 24 k ' ' ' ' L ( ω ω 0 ) 4 1 120 k ' ' ' ' ' L ( ω ω 0 ) 5
n i 2 = a 1 a 2 λ 2 + a 3 λ 2 + a 4 λ 4 a 5 λ 6 + a 6 λ 8
φ e ( ω ) | z = L = j ω t + φ ( ω ) | z = 0 + k e ( ω ) L ω L / v g
ε b a = tan β   where   0 ε 1   and   0 β π / 4
tan α = B A   where   0 α π / 2
sin 2 β = sin 2 α | sin Δ |
tan2θ=tan2αcosΔ  where  0θπ
L = ( 2 n + 1 ) π / 2 k e k o     n = 0 , 1 , 2...

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