Abstract

We report on a sodium (Na) temperature lidar based on two injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The laser power at 589 nm is 400 mW (40 mJ per pulse at a repetition rate of 10 Hz) and the pulse width is 22 nsec FWHM. The narrowband laser tuned to the Doppler broadened Na D2 spectrum enables us to measure the temperature of the mesopause region (80-115 km). This solid-state transportable system demonstrated high performance and capability at Syowa Station in Antarctica for 3 years and at Uji in Japan for an additional year without any major operational troubles.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Chu, W. Pan, G. C. Papen, C. S. Gardner, and J. A. Gelbwachs, “Fe Boltzmann temperature lidar: design, error analysis, and initial results at the north and south poles,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4400–4410 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. S. Gardner, “Performance Capabilities of Middle-Atmosphere Temperature Lidars: Comparison of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Ca+, and Rayleigh Systems,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4941–4956 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, and C.-Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 13–21 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 1019–1021 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2004

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Garnder, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, “Performance Capabilities of Middle-Atmosphere Temperature Lidars: Comparison of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Ca+, and Rayleigh Systems,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4941–4956 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2002

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

X. Chu, W. Pan, G. C. Papen, C. S. Gardner, and J. A. Gelbwachs, “Fe Boltzmann temperature lidar: design, error analysis, and initial results at the north and south poles,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4400–4410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, and C.-Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

Acott, P. E.

Akagawa, K.

Asobe, M.

Bills, R. E.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, and C.-Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brailove, A. A.

Burns, G. B.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chu, X.

Delgado, R.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ejiri, M. K.

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Espy, P. J.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Forbes, J. M.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

French, W. J. R.

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Friedman, J. S.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

Garnder, C. S.

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Garnder, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gelbwachs, J. A.

Hänsch, T. W.

Hayano, Y.

Hedin, J.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Höffner, J.

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

Ito, M.

Iye, M.

Jeys, T. H.

Kawahara, T. D.

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Garnder, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kitahara, T.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Klekociuk, A. R.

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, F.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Krueger, D. A.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mertens, C. J.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mlynczak, M. G.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

Nakamura, T.

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Nishikawa, T.

Nomura, A.

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Garnder, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

Palo, S. E.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Papen, G. C.

Raizada, S.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

Saito, Y.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Searcy, P.

She, C. Y.

She, C.-Y.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, and C.-Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takami, H.

Takazawa, A.

Tepley, C. A.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, M.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Vance, J. D.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wada, S.

Williams, B. P.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. R.

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yue, J.

Zhang, X.

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. H.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Can. J. Phys.

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, ““Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E),” Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002), doi:.
[CrossRef]

G. B. Burns, T. D. Kawahara, W. J. R. French, A. Nomura, and A. R. Klekociuk, “A comparison of hydroxyl rotational temperatures from Davis (69°S, 78°E) with sodium lidar temperatures from Syowa (69°S, 39°E),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(1), 1025 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Palo, J. M. Forbes, X. Zhang, J. M. Russell, C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, G. B. Burns, P. J. Espy, and T. D. Kawahara, “Planetary wave coupling from the stratosphere to the thermosphere during the 2002 Southern Hemisphere pre-stratwarm period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(23), L23809 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 65(16-18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Garnder, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, and C.-Y. She, “Narrowband lidar technique for sodium temperature and Doppler wind observations of the upper atmosphere,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 13–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the injection seeded Nd:YAG laser based 589 nm transmitter. Sum frequency generation of 1064 and 1319 nm pulse lasers were applied.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the lidar receiving system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Received lidar signal tuned at (a) the D2a peak and (b) around the minimum between D2a and D2b (red lines). Thick solid lines in (a) and (b) indicate nightly averaged signals at each wavelength. (c) Nightly averaged temperature structure in the mesopause region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hourly profiles of (a) nighttime temperature and (b) sodium density.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the proposed injection seeding part including the SFG system using high power seeders, Doppler free saturation spectroscopy with a Na cell and an AO frequency shifter.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System parameters for the Na temperature laser transmitter

Tables Icon

Table 2 System parameters for the lidar receiver

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