Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel bit-by-bit code scrambling technique based on time domain spectral phase encoding/decoding (SPE/SPD) scheme using only a single phase modulator to simultaneously generate and decode the code hopping sequence and DPSK data for secure optical communication application. In the experiment, 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data has been generated, decoded and securely transmitted over 34km by scrambling five 8-chip, 20-Gchip/s Gold codes with prime-hop patterns. The proposed scheme can rapidly reconfigure the optical code hopping sequence bit-by-bit with the DPSK data, and thus it is very robust to conventional data rate energy detection and DPSK demodulation attack, exhibiting the potential to provide unconditional transmission security and realize even one-time pad.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Kitayama and M. Murata, “Versatile Optical Code-Based MPLS for Circuit, Burst, and Packet Switchings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2753–2764 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Wada, H. Furukawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Prototype 160Gbit/s/port optical packet switch based on optical code label processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1551–1559 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Wang, K. Matsushima, K. Kitayama, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, and F. Kubota, “High-performance optical code generation and recognition by use of a 511-chip, 640-Gchip/s phase-shifted superstructured fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 355–357 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wang and K. Kitayama, “Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2226–2235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Etemad, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, R. Menendez, and P. Toliver, “OCDM-based photonic layer “security” scalable to 100 Gbit/s for existing WDM networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(7), 948–967 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).
  12. T. H. Shake, “Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1652–1663 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 655–670 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent OCDMA System Using DPSK Data Format With Balanced Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 826–828 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4228–4234 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Wang and N. Wada, “Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7319–7326 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Gao, X. Wang, N. Kataoka, and N. Wada, “Demonstration of time-domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator”, IEEE LEOS Summer Topical 2009, New port, CA, USA, Paper TuA3.1.
  20. X. Wang, Z. Gao, N. Kataoka, and N. Wada, “Time domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator for OCDMA application,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9879–9890 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Schneier, Applied cryptography, Second edition, (John Wiley & Sons, 1996), Chapter 7.
  22. Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory on secrecy systems,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).

2010 (2)

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

X. Wang, Z. Gao, N. Kataoka, and N. Wada, “Time domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator for OCDMA application,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9879–9890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

X. Wang and N. Wada, “Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7319–7326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Wada, H. Furukawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Prototype 160Gbit/s/port optical packet switch based on optical code label processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1551–1559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Etemad, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, R. Menendez, and P. Toliver, “OCDM-based photonic layer “security” scalable to 100 Gbit/s for existing WDM networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(7), 948–967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4228–4234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent OCDMA System Using DPSK Data Format With Balanced Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 826–828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Shake, “Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1652–1663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 655–670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, K. Kitayama, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, and F. Kubota, “High-performance optical code generation and recognition by use of a 511-chip, 640-Gchip/s phase-shifted superstructured fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 355–357 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory on secrecy systems,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).

Agarwal, A.

Banwell, T.

Brès, C.-S.

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

Fan, T. R.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

N. Wada, H. Furukawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Prototype 160Gbit/s/port optical packet switch based on optical code label processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1551–1559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

Glesk, I.

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4228–4234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, N.

Kelly, A. E.

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

Kitayama, K.

Kubota, F.

Langrock, C.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4228–4234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, K.

Menendez, R.

Miyazaki, T.

N. Wada, H. Furukawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Prototype 160Gbit/s/port optical packet switch based on optical code label processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1551–1559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent OCDMA System Using DPSK Data Format With Balanced Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 826–828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

Narimanov, E. E.

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishiki, A.

Prucnal, P. R.

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M. A.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shake, T. H.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory on secrecy systems,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).

Sorel, M.

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

Stock, A.

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

Wada, N.

Wang, T.

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in O-CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4228–4234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, “OCDMA platform for avionics applications,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1115–1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, and A. M. Weiner, “Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: a code-switching scheme,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 817–819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Wada, H. Furukawa, and T. Miyazaki, “Prototype 160Gbit/s/port optical packet switch based on optical code label processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1551–1559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent OCDMA System Using DPSK Data Format With Balanced Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 826–828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, A. Chowdhury, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical CDMA Code Wavelength Conversion Using PPLN to Improve Transmission Security,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 383–385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bell Syst. Tech. (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory on secrecy systems,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

S. Etemad, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, R. Menendez, and P. Toliver, “OCDM-based photonic layer “security” scalable to 100 Gbit/s for existing WDM networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(7), 948–967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, M. Sorel, A. E. Kelly, and P. R. Prucnal, “Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with advanced Optical Signal Processing,” J. Opt. Netw. 5(11), 1328–1334 (2010).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

Z. Gao, X. Wang, N. Kataoka, and N. Wada, “Demonstration of time-domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator”, IEEE LEOS Summer Topical 2009, New port, CA, USA, Paper TuA3.1.

B. Schneier, Applied cryptography, Second edition, (John Wiley & Sons, 1996), Chapter 7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the proposed scheme (a) transmitter for bit-by-bit code scrambling and DPSK data modulation; (b) receiver for SPD and DPSK data demodulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of bit-by-bit code scrambling based on time domain SPE/SPD scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Encoded waveform (upper row) and (b) encoded spectrum (middle row) for the five codes; (c) Auto-/cross- correlation signals for OC2 (lower row).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) DPSK data and corresponding Gold code; (b) Prime-hop code patterns and (c) Look-up table of prime-hop code pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Correctly decoded optical waveform, (b) correct electrical pattern and (c) correct eye diagram. The decoded waveform, electrical pattern and eye diagram of the cross-correlation signal are shown in (d) ~(f), respectively. (g) Auto-/cross-correlation signal measured by an auto-correlator for CH4; (h) BER performance after 34km transmission for the correctly decoded signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

An example for definition of Key Length and Code Number.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The increasing trend of Effective key length (KL) versus code number (N) and the key length (L); (b) Region of the n and L for higher security level than 128-bit symmetric key.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C = P L n n L n ( L n )
L e f f = L o g 2 ( P L n n L n ) ( L n )

Metrics