Abstract

We proposed a metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser structure that exhibited a superior scaling properties for D/λ0 > 0.5 where D is the device diameter. We theoretically analyzed the metal-cald nanoring laser and compared its scaling properties with two other similar nanolaser structures. We found that the two design parameters, namely the ring width and the ring diameter, enable independent emission wavelength control from device dimension. This property in combination with other desirable features including in-plane out-coupling and monolithic integration make the metal-clad nanoring laser highly attractive for photonic integration.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Topol’ancik, S. Chakravarty, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarti, “Electrically injected quantum-dot photonic crystal microcavity light sources,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 232–234 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998)
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beri, S.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Topol’ancik, S. Chakravarty, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarti, “Electrically injected quantum-dot photonic crystal microcavity light sources,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 232–234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bour, D.

Burnham, R. D.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chakrabarti, S.

Chakravarty, S.

Chen, Y.-H.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coomans, W.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

Crozier, K. B.

Cubukcu, E.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danckaert, J.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Diehl, L.

Donati, S

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, M. D.

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelens, L.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

Giuliani, G.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, M

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Höfler, G.

Hong, T.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Josell, D.

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kim, M. W.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P.-C.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumabe, K.

N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Laybourn, P. J. R

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, V.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandelshtam, V. A.

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marell, M.

Matsumoto, N.

N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mezosi, G.

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miglieria, R

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miglierina, R.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moffat, T. P.

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, C.-Z.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauzauskie, P. J.

P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Scire, A

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scire, A.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirbuly, D. J.

P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, G.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streifer, W.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. S.

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Topol’ancik, J.

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van der Sande, G.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verschaffelt, G.

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstuyft, S.

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, D.

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-K.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Side view of the sub-wavelength ring laser. The semiconductor ring is covered with metal everywhere. Hybrid dielectric-plasmonic traveling wave. (b). Side view of the metal-coated pillar laser used in simulations. The semiconductor pillar is covered with metal everywhere. Hybrid dielectric-plasmonic standing wave. (c). Surface plasmon-enhanced sub-wavelength injection laser used in simulations. The top layer is metal sitting in close proximity to quantum well gain medium. Pure surface plasmonic wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). WGM lateral confinement of sub-wavelength ring laser. (b). Transverse confinement of sub-wavelength ring laser, done via refractive index differences between InP and InGaAs layers. The left side of the graph is the top of the ring and the right side is the InP substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cavity Q factor vs. D/λo for subwavelength ring laser, metal-coated pillar laser and SPESIL. Lines are for visual guidance only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Cavity Q factor vs. ring width for 4 different ring diameters. λres = 1μm. (b). Ring width tolerance for FWHM of Q factor in nm for a given ring diameter. Lines are for visual guidance only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a). Cavity Q factor vs. waveguide width for D/λo = 0.6 and ring width = 150nm. (b). Cavity Q factor vs. waveguide width for D/λo = 0.9 and ring width = 200nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a). Cavity Q factor vs. metal thickness for semiconductor (excluding metal thickness) ring diameter = 800nm and ring width = 200nm. Resonance = 1μm. (b). E-field profile with varying metal thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning electron micrograph of a sub-wavelength laser geometry, illustrating uniform metal coverage of a center trench via electrodeposition.

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