Abstract

We characterize an approach to make ultra-low-loss waveguides using stable and reproducible stoichiometric Si3N4 deposited with low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Using a high-aspect-ratio core geometry, record low losses of 8-9 dB/m for a 0.5 mm bend radius down to 3 dB/m for a 2 mm bend radius are measured with ring resonator and optical frequency domain reflectometry techniques. From a waveguide loss model that agrees well with experimental results, we project that 0.1 dB/m total propagation loss is achievable at a 7 mm bend radius with this approach.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (1)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt Photon. 2(3), 370–404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Ciminelli, V. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Burmeister, J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, M. L. Masanović, B. Stamenić, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integrated circuit optical buffer for packet-switched networks,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6629–6635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

A. Yeniay, R. Gao, K. Takayama, R. Gao, and A. Garito, “Ultra-Low-Loss Polymer Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Takahashi, “Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: present and future,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 520–531 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz and H. Smith, “Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Bienstman, E. Six, A. Roelens, M. Vanwolleghem, and R. Baets, “Calculation of bending losses in dielectric waveguides using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 164–166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Sakaguchi, S. Todoroki, and S. Shibata, “Rayleigh scattering in silica glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(11), 2821–2824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and C. Henry, “Silica-based optical integrated circuits,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 143(5), 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Adar, M. Serbin, and V. Mizrahi, “Less than 1 dB per meter propagation loss of silica waveguides measured using a ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1369–1372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne and J. P. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Y. T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, H. Okazaki, and M. Yasu, “Very low-loss GeO2-doped silica waveguides fabricated by flame hydrolysis deposition method,” Electron. Lett. 26(5), 327–329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adar, R.

R. Adar, M. Serbin, and V. Mizrahi, “Less than 1 dB per meter propagation loss of silica waveguides measured using a ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1369–1372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt Photon. 2(3), 370–404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, V. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ay, F.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman, E. Six, A. Roelens, M. Vanwolleghem, and R. Baets, “Calculation of bending losses in dielectric waveguides using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 164–166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and H. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz and H. Smith, “Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beguin, A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bellman, R. A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman, E. Six, A. Roelens, M. Vanwolleghem, and R. Baets, “Calculation of bending losses in dielectric waveguides using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 164–166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Borreman, A.

Bourdon, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Bulthuis, H.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Burmeister, E. F.

Campanella, C. E.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt Photon. 2(3), 370–404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt Photon. 2(3), 370–404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, V. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt Photon. 2(3), 370–404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dell'Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R.

Garito, A.

Geuzebroek, D. H.

Guiot, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guiziou, L.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

Heiblum, M.

M. Heiblum and J. Harris, “Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 11(2), 75–83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

Henry, C.

Y. Li and C. Henry, “Silica-based optical integrated circuits,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 143(5), 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klunder, D.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Kominato, M. Y. T.

M. Y. T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, H. Okazaki, and M. Yasu, “Very low-loss GeO2-doped silica waveguides fabricated by flame hydrolysis deposition method,” Electron. Lett. 26(5), 327–329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Lacey, J. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

LeGuen, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehuede, P.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, “Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Li, K. S.

Li, Y.

Y. Li and C. Henry, “Silica-based optical integrated circuits,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 143(5), 263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. P.

Martinelli, M.

Masanovic, M. L.

Melloni, A.

Mizrahi, V.

R. Adar, M. Serbin, and V. Mizrahi, “Less than 1 dB per meter propagation loss of silica waveguides measured using a ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1369–1372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

Murphy, T. E.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, H. Okazaki, and M. Yasu, “Very low-loss GeO2-doped silica waveguides fabricated by flame hydrolysis deposition method,” Electron. Lett. 26(5), 327–329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, H. Okazaki, and M. Yasu, “Very low-loss GeO2-doped silica waveguides fabricated by flame hydrolysis deposition method,” Electron. Lett. 26(5), 327–329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

D. Klunder, E. Krioukov, F. Tan, T. Van Der Veen, H. Bulthuis, G. Sengo, C. Otto, H. Hoekstra, and A. Driessen, “Vertically and laterally waveguide-coupled cylindrical microresonators in Si3N4 on SiO2 technology,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 603–608 (2001).

Passaro, V. M.

C. Ciminelli, V. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Three-dimensional modelling of scattering loss in InGaAsP/InP and silica-on-silicon bent waveguides,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

Roelens, A.

P. Bienstman, E. Six, A. Roelens, M. Vanwolleghem, and R. Baets, “Calculation of bending losses in dielectric waveguides using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(2), 164–166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, S.

S. Sakaguchi, S. Todoroki, and S. Shibata, “Rayleigh scattering in silica glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(11), 2821–2824 (1996).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section (to scale) of the Si3N4-core waveguides designed and characterized in this paper along with simulated (λ = 1550 nm) fundamental (b) TE and (c) TM modes (same scale) of an 80 nm core waveguide. The spacing between contours is 6 dB down to the minimum contour of −30 dB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Coordinate system referenced in all equations along with waveguide roughness profile and (b) autocorrelation function of AFM data from the surface of a Si3N4 film fit to exponential and Gaussian models.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated (λ = 1550 nm) a) sidewall and b) top/bottom surface scattering losses for the fundamental TE mode of Si3N4 core waveguides. Loss is obtained through multiplication by the mean square deviation, σ2, of the roughness profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated (λ = 1550 nm) TE mode diameter (FWHM) and TE mode confinement along the a) lateral and b) vertical directions for varying waveguide core widths. The waveguide core thickness is 100 nm for both plots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Ring resonator loss measurement results for 80, 90, and 100 nm waveguides at λ = ~1550 nm. Results are fit to the bend and scattering loss models (solid lines) using roughness parameters (σsidewall, Lc) = (14 nm, 50 nm) and (σsurface, Lc) = (0.1 nm, 30 nm). (b) A typical measured output spectrum for a 100 nm thick, 4 mm radius ring.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical frequency domain reflectometry measurement of 6 meters of spiraled waveguide. The inset shows a linear fit to the decreasing return loss amplitude data that is used to extract propagation loss.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A comparison of the high-aspect-ratio Si3N4-core loss results (blue triangles) with the state-of-the-art (red squares) [1,6,7,11,2232]. Dashed lines show the minimum achievable loss at a given bend radius for Si3N4-core waveguides from the loss model using current (σsidewall = 14 nm) and state-of-the-art (σsidewall = 3.16 nm) roughness parameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Simulated (λ = 1550 nm) lowest-loss single-mode core geometry and (b) aspect ratio are plotted versus bend radius.

Equations (10)

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J ( r ) = j ω ε 0 ( n c o r e 2 n c l a d 2 ) E T E ( x , y ) δ ( y ) δ ( z ) ,
R ( u ) σ 2 exp ( | u | L c ) ,
R ˜ ( Ω ) = { R ( u ) } 2 σ 2 L c 1 + L c 2 Ω 2 .
P r a d L = 0 2 π 0 π ( S r ^ ) R ˜ ( β k 0 n c l a d r ^ z ^ ) r 2 sin θ d θ d ϕ ,
( S r ^ ) = π 2 n c l a d 2 λ 0 4 η 0 r 2 ( n c o r e 2 n c l a d 2 ) 2 Re { G ¯ ¯ G ¯ ¯ } | F s h a p e ( θ , ϕ ) | 2 | S p o l ( θ , ϕ ) | 2 ,
ϒ z ( y ) = 2 b | sin ( π y b ) | ,
| F | sin | ( θ , ϕ ) | 2 = 8 b [ π b n c l a d k 0 cos ( ϕ ) sin ( θ ) sin ( 1 2 b n c l a d k 0 cos ( ϕ ) sin ( θ ) ) ] 2 ( π b n c l a d k 0 cos ( ϕ ) sin ( θ ) ) 2 ( π + b n c l a d k 0 cos ( ϕ ) sin ( θ ) ) 2 ,
α t o t a l = σ s i d e w a l l 2 Π s i d e w a l l + σ t o p / b o t t o m 2 Π t o p / b o t t o m
P o u t P i n = | γ 0 κ 2 T + j ( ω ω 0 ) γ 0 + κ 2 T + j ( ω ω 0 ) | 2 ,
R L ( z ) = 10 log [ P b a c k s c a t t e r e d ( z ) P i n ] = 10 log [ S α R W 0 exp ( 2 α z ) ] ,

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