Abstract

We investigate the intracavity pulse dynamics inside dispersion-managed mode-locked fiber lasers, and show numerically that for a relatively wide range of parameters, pulse compression dynamics in the passive anomalous fiber can be accompanied by a significant enhancement of the spectral width by a factor close to 3. Varying the average cavity dispersion also reveals chaotic dynamics for certain dispersion ranges. The impact of the implementation of an optical output port to tap optimal pulse features is discussed.

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References

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  1. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Ph. Grelu, J. Béal, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Soliton pairs in a fiber laser: from anomalous to normal average dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2238–2243 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu.m Opt. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition. (Academic Press, Boston 2007).
  11. K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2004 (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu.m Opt. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bale, B. G.

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Béal, J.

Boscolo, S.

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. C.

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chouli, S.

Doran, N.

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forysiak, W.

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gabitov, I.

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grapinet, M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, Ph.

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, J. Béal, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Soliton pairs in a fiber laser: from anomalous to normal average dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2238–2243 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu.m Opt. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, F. M.

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kutz, J. N.

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. F.

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu,, H. F.

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, E. G.

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, J. Béal, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Soliton pairs in a fiber laser: from anomalous to normal average dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2238–2243 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, K.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1080–1082 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S. K.

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Chan, H. F. Liu,, K. C. Chan, and H. F. Liu, “Short pulse generation by higher order soliton-effect compression: effects of optical fiber characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(12), 2226–2235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu.m Opt. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu.m Opt. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. Doran, “10-Gbt/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(10), 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. G. Bale, S. Boscolo, J. N. Kutz, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Intracavity dynamics in high-power mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, Ph. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition. (Academic Press, Boston 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber laser cavity

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of stable mode locking with large spectral breathing: (a) changes in the pulse energy Q within one cavity roundtrip, (b) changes in pulse duration and spectral width, and (c) temporal breathing and (d) spectral breathing inside of the passive fiber (SMF) section. We used Qsat = 200 pJ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

spectro-temporal pulse breathing for initial cavity parameters (K = 1, black curve) and after cavity downscaling by a factor of 4 (K = 0.25, red curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output energy versus the dispersion-compensation fiber (LDCF ), for various gain values g0 . Mode locking gaps can be clearly seen in all cases, being wider and more frequents as the energy pumped into the system increases. The values of the parameters that are different from those used in Fig. 2 are written inside the figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) optical spectra (in blue) at the additional 10%-output coupler located in the middle of the SMF, for different values of the saturation energy Qsat . The gain spectral profile is assumed to be a 25-nm wide Gaussian function (in red). (b): corresponding pulse intensity profiles.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i E z + D k 2 E t t + Γ k | E | 2 E = 0 ,
i E z + D k 2 E t t + Γ k | E | 2 E = i g 0 / 2 1 + Q ( z ) / Q s a t ( 1 + t t 2 Ω g 2 ) E ,
T = T 0 + Δ T I ( t ) P s a t + I ( t ) ,

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