Abstract

Vertical optical coupling is demonstrated in a multimode interferometer structure fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material. These CMOS-compatible couplers are suitable to be used to transfer optical power between stacked waveguide layers of a three-dimensional photonic circuit. Coupling between these layers can be restricted to certain regions by selectively fabricating a silicon channel between them, resulting in an isolated multimode waveguide section. Standard photolithography and etching techniques were used to fabricate proof-of-concept devices consisting of a channel waveguide coupling into a silicon waveguide that is vertically multimode. An optical coupling ratio of 93±4% between the upper and lower waveguide regions of the device was achieved with a coupler length of 241 µm.

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References

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  1. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dunon, “Submicron Silicon Strip Waveguides,” in Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach, L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  3. T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).
  4. C. J. Brooks, J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, “Vertically-stacked SOI waveguides for 3-D photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 72–74.
  5. C. J. Brooks, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, “Vertically-integrated multimode interferometers for 3-D photonic circuits in SOI,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 0Z.1–0Z.9 (2008).
  6. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. http://www.rsoftdesign.com .
  9. D. Dai, J.-J. He, and S. He, “Compact silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler with bilevel taper structure,” Appl. Opt. 44(24), 5036–5041 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Dai, J.-J. He, and S. He, “Compact silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler with bilevel taper structure,” Appl. Opt. 44(24), 5036–5041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).

2003 (1)

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. T.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. H.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

French, P. J.

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-J.

He, S.

Indukuri, T.

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).

Jalali, B.

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).

Kraft, M.

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-M.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pandraud, G.

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spearing, S. M.

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried-waveguide-coupled microresonators,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 87, 081114 (2005).

ETRI J. (1)

J.-M. Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. H. Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler,” ETRI J. 25(2), 81–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

L. Jiang, G. Pandraud, P. J. French, S. M. Spearing, and M. Kraft, “A novel method for nanoprecision alignment in wafer bonding applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(7), S61–S67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dunon, “Submicron Silicon Strip Waveguides,” in Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach, L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

C. J. Brooks, J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, “Vertically-stacked SOI waveguides for 3-D photonic circuits,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 72–74.

C. J. Brooks, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, “Vertically-integrated multimode interferometers for 3-D photonic circuits in SOI,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 0Z.1–0Z.9 (2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Proposed vertically-integrated 2×2 MMI coupler in SOI b) Optical power coupled between the lower and upper waveguides of a vertically-integrated MMI coupler with H = 2 µm, W = 2 µm and HMMI = 5 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process for the proof-of-concept MMI coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of a) Tapered mode converters leading into MMI couplers of varying length b) Transition from the lower input waveguide into the MMI coupler section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaged output optical fields from MMI couplers of varying length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling ratio measured for various MMI coupler lengths.

Equations (2)

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L π = π β 0 β 1 4 n g H e 2 3 λ
L M M I = p ( 3 L π ) , with p = 0 , 1 , 2 ,    

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