Abstract

We investigate the effects of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with lateral injection geometry based on numerical simulation. Current crowding near the mesa edge and the decrease in the current spreading length with current density are shown to cause significant efficiency droop. It is found that the efficiency droop can be reduced considerably as the uniformity of current spreading is improved by increasing the resistivity of the p-type current spreading layer or decreasing the sheet resistance of the n-GaN layer. The droop reduction is well interpreted by the uniformity of carrier distribution in the plane of quantum wells.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. J. H. Son and J. L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5466 .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Hwang and J. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
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  21. H. Kim and S. N. Lee, “Theoretical considerations on current spreading in GaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated with top-emission geometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(5), H562 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (8)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and S. N. Lee, “Theoretical considerations on current spreading in GaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated with top-emission geometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(5), H562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son and J. L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5466 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang and J. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu and K. H. Ha, “Effect of active-layer structures on temperature characteristics of InGaN blue laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10849–10857 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10849 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baur, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camras, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I. T.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gotz, W.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K. H.

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hinckley, J.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang and J. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. K.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. N. H.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and S. N. Lee, “Theoretical considerations on current spreading in GaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated with top-emission geometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(5), H562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. S.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. K.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laubsch, A.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. L.

Lee, S. N.

H. Kim and S. N. Lee, “Theoretical considerations on current spreading in GaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated with top-emission geometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(5), H562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limb, J.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narimatsu, H.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narita, J.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, E. H.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu and K. H. Ha, “Effect of active-layer structures on temperature characteristics of InGaN blue laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10849–10857 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10849 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabathil, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

S. Hwang and J. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. I.

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. S.

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weimar, A.

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, T. K.

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells and its impoact on the efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Park, D. N. H. Kang, I. T. Ferguson, S. K. Jeon, J. S. Park, and T. K. Yoo, “The effect of silicon doping in the selected barrier on the electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light–emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang and J. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of therecombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. Kim and S. N. Lee, “Theoretical considerations on current spreading in GaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated with top-emission geometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(5), H562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kim, D. S. Shin, H. Y. Ryu, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of time-resolved photoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells using the carrier rate equation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(11), 112402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (3)

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Hahn, A. Weimar, M. Peter, and J. Baur, “High-powe InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691004, 691004-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), chap. 8.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vertical cross section of the simulated light-emitting diode (LED) structure with lateral injection geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the resistivity of ITO (ρ) from 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−3 Ωcm. (a) Current–voltage relation (IV curve), and (b) internal quantum efficiency (IQE) as a function of injection current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional distribution of current density below multiple-quantum-well (MQW) layers when injection current is 20 mA. (a) ρ = 1 × 10−4, and (b) ρ = 1 × 10−3 Ωcm. J 0 in the color scale bar corresponds to the current density, I/A where I is injection current and A is the light-emitting area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of carrier density along the horizontal direction of a quantum well (QW) for several ρ values from 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−3 Ωcm. Here, the QW is positioned nearest to the p-GaN layer. (a) Electron density, and (b) hole density distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of two-dimensional current density distribution when injection current is (a) 10 mA, (b) 20 mA, (c) 30 mA, and (d) 50 mA. Here, ρ is 1 × 10−4 Ωcm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) to the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for several ρ values from 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−3 Ωcm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IQE as a function of injection current when ρ is 1 × 10−4 Ωcm. (a) Thickness of the n-GaN is varied from 2 to 6 μm when doping concentration is 5 × 1018 cm−3. (b) Doping concentration is increased from 1 × 1018 cm−3 to 1 × 1019 cm−3 when the n-GaN thickness is 4 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The distribution of electron density along the QW plane when ρ is 1 × 10−4 Ωcm. (a) Thickness of the n-GaN is varied from 2 to 6 μm when doping concentration is 5 × 1018 cm−3. (b) Doping concentration is increased from 1 × 1018 cm−3 to 1 × 1019 cm−3 when the n-GaN thickness is 4 μm.

Equations (5)

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J ( x ) = J 0 exp ( x / L S ) ,
L S = 2 n k T e J 0 ( ρ n / t n ) ,
L S t n ρ / ρ n ,
η WPE = η voltage η int η extract ,
η voltage = h v ¯ / ( e V ) ,

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