Abstract

We report a femtosecond crystallographic study of the dependence of the free-carries generation to the alignment of a crystalline sample to the laser polarization. The probe pulse transmission exhibits a π/2 modulation that is shown to be correlated with the direction dependence of the effective electron mass. This observation suggests that nonlinear ionization is the first channel for free electron generation during the laser pulse. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the probe pulse transmission indicates the dominance of the avalanche ionization and that nonlinear ionization provides the initial seed electrons for avalanche.”

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2010 (3)

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: Numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(8), 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rethfeld, “Unified model for the free-electron avalanche in laser-irradiated dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 187401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, and Ph. Martin, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” EPL 56(1), 138–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. Dauer, “Optical constants of lithium fluoride thin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(2), 300–303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1977 (1)

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8(4), 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Adams, S. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, “The valence band of lithium fluoride,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 6(20), 382 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Abbamonte, P.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackermann, L.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. M.

J. M. Adams, S. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, “The valence band of lithium fluoride,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 6(20), 382 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Barillot, T.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8(4), 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Chin, S. L.

Chowdhury, I. H.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: Numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(8), 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corradi, G.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dachraoui, H.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dauer, V.

Deng, H. X.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Khamhawy, A.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellabban, M. A.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S.

J. M. Adams, S. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, “The valence band of lithium fluoride,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 6(20), 382 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fally, M.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Gertsvolf, M.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, T.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grojo, D.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, S.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, and Ph. Martin, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” EPL 56(1), 138–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jean-Ruel, H.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, H. D.

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, A.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

Keldysh, V.

V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Klug, D. D.

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovács, L.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ku, W.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, S.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, K.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, Ph.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, and Ph. Martin, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” EPL 56(1), 138–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meyhöfer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “Optics at critical intensity: applications to nanomorphing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(16), 5856–5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagura, C.

Obara, M.

Perry, M. D.

Quéré, F.

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, and Ph. Martin, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” EPL 56(1), 138–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D.

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, J. P.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, H. R.

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

B. Rethfeld, “Unified model for the free-electron avalanche in laser-irradiated dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 187401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Rueff, J. P.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupp, R. A.

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

Shukla, A.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, G.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smadici, S.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spanner, M.

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Suda, A.

Sun, K.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. M.

J. M. Adams, S. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, “The valence band of lithium fluoride,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 6(20), 382 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Vicanek, M.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: Numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(8), 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, X.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: Numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(8), 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. L.

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zu, X. T.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

EPL (1)

F. Quéré, S. Guizard, and Ph. Martin, “Time-resolved study of laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” EPL 56(1), 138–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Gertsvolf, M. Spanner, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Demonstration of attosecond ionization dynamics inside transparent solids,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(13), 131002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

J. M. Adams, S. Evans, and J. M. Thomas, “The valence band of lithium fluoride,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 6(20), 382 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8(4), 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: Numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(8), 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, S. Lei, T. Barillot, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization in bulk SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(21), 212301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Dachraoui, R. A. Rupp, K. Lengyel, M. A. Ellabban, M. Fally, G. Corradi, L. Kovács, and L. Ackermann, “Photochromism of doped terbium gallium garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Rethfeld, “Unified model for the free-electron avalanche in laser-irradiated dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 187401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, “Field dependent avalanche ionization rates in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 083001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum theory for cold avalanche ionization in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, P. P. Rajeev, D. D. Klug, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Orientation-dependent multiphoton ionization in wide band gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(24), 243001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Abbamonte, T. Graber, J. P. Reed, S. Smadici, C. L. Yeh, A. Shukla, J. P. Rueff, and W. Ku, “Dynamical reconstruction of the exciton in LiF with inelastic x-ray scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(34), 12159–12163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical setup of the crystallographic experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the alignment of the IR pump laser polarization to the crystal axis, measured at pump peak intensity I = 20 TW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of the pump pulse transmission (chained curve) and the phase shift (dashed curve) as a function of the alignment θ angle between the laser polarization and the crystal lattice. The transmission angular dependency is caused by an optically induced birefringence of the medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the transmission modulation in LiF on the peak intensity of pump pulses at delay time ∆t~20 fs. The amplitude modulation are determined using this fit function T = T0 + A·(cos2 θ · sin2θ). Vertical error bars represent the uncertainties in the contour fitting.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized 266 nm transmitted intensity versus pump-probe delay time; pump peak intensity I = 20 TW/cm2. The red solid line is a simulated cross correlation of the IR and 266 nm.

Equations (8)

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d n d t = α I ( t ) n ( t ) + σ k I k ;
γ = ω m r e d Δ e E L ,
z = 2 9 π 2 Δ ( m r e d Δ 2 ) 3 / 2 ( ω Δ γ ) 5 / 2 × exp { π 2 Δ γ ω ( 1 γ 2 8 ) } .
σ k = 2 ω 9 π ( m r e d ω ) 3 / 2 ϕ ( 2 k ( 2 ω ( Δ + e 2 E L 2 4 m r e d ω ) ) ) × exp { 2 k ( 1 1 4 γ 2 ) } ( 1 16 γ 2 ) k ,
α = 2 p ε 0 c 0 U p 1 / κ ( ε ) d ε ,
κ ( ε ) = e m * τ m ( ε ) ( 1 + ω τ m ( ε ) 2 ) .
T = T 0 sin 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) sin 2 ( 2 θ ) , Δ ϕ = 3 π L 3 λ n 2 ( cos 2 θ sin 2 θ ) .
z f ( I ) = 0.367 k a 0 2 [ ( I / I c r 0.852 ) 2 0.0219 ] 1 / 2 ,

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