Abstract

Composite metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) structures are first proposed to realize the ultra-short optical splitters with simplified designs. The operation mechanism is based on the contra-directional coupling achieved in composite plasmonic slot waveguides. In certain cases, the switching function can also be realized. It is further shown that based on the same physical mechanism multi-dielectric-core composite MDM structures could serve as a novel plasmonic waveguide crossover component with low cross talk and high throughput.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
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  36. I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155416 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Pan, K. T. He, Z. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Realization of subwavelength guiding utilizing coupled wedge plasmon polaritons in splitted groove waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16722–16732 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” J. Nanophoton. 4(1), 043509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. J. Li, and E. Y.-B. Pun, “Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. Yan, L. F. Shen, Y. Yuan, and T. J. Yang, “Interaction Between Negative and Positive Index Medium Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3560–3566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21209–21214 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9287–9292 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Wang, R. Islam, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “An ultra-short contra-directional coupler utilizing surface plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7279–7290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H.-S. Tae, and J.-H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin and S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary, transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Peacock and N. G. R. Broderick, “Guided modes in channel waveguides with a negative index of refraction,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2502–2510 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Halterman, J. M. Elson, and P. L. Overfelt, “Characteristics of bound modes in coupled dielectric waveguides containing negative index media,” Opt. Express 11(6), 521–529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. B.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, K.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” J. Nanophoton. 4(1), 043509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

A. C. Peacock and N. G. R. Broderick, “Guided modes in channel waveguides with a negative index of refraction,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2502–2510 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Pan, K. T. He, Z. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Realization of subwavelength guiding utilizing coupled wedge plasmon polaritons in splitted groove waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16722–16732 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, Y. K.

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H.-S. Tae, and J.-H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davoyan, A. R.

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” J. Nanophoton. 4(1), 043509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21209–21214 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
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W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

Y. Wang, R. Islam, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “An ultra-short contra-directional coupler utilizing surface plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7279–7290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, J. M.

K. Halterman, J. M. Elson, and P. L. Overfelt, “Characteristics of bound modes in coupled dielectric waveguides containing negative index media,” Opt. Express 11(6), 521–529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

H. Shin and S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

B. L. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary, transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halterman, K.

K. Halterman, J. M. Elson, and P. L. Overfelt, “Characteristics of bound modes in coupled dielectric waveguides containing negative index media,” Opt. Express 11(6), 521–529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, K. T.

J. Pan, K. T. He, Z. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Realization of subwavelength guiding utilizing coupled wedge plasmon polaritons in splitted groove waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16722–16732 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Islam, R.

Y. Wang, R. Islam, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “An ultra-short contra-directional coupler utilizing surface plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7279–7290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H.-S. Tae, and J.-H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” J. Nanophoton. 4(1), 043509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21209–21214 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

B. L. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary, transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H.-S. Tae, and J.-H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B. J.

S. Q. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. J. Li, and E. Y.-B. Pun, “Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9287–9292 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markey, L.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neshev, D. N.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overfelt, P. L.

K. Halterman, J. M. Elson, and P. L. Overfelt, “Characteristics of bound modes in coupled dielectric waveguides containing negative index media,” Opt. Express 11(6), 521–529 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

J. Pan, K. T. He, Z. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Realization of subwavelength guiding utilizing coupled wedge plasmon polaritons in splitted groove waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16722–16732 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peacock, A. C.

A. C. Peacock and N. G. R. Broderick, “Guided modes in channel waveguides with a negative index of refraction,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2502–2510 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y.-B.

S. Q. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. J. Li, and E. Y.-B. Pun, “Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, and L. Eng, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(17), 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selker, M. D.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” J. Nanophoton. 4(1), 043509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Davoyan, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21209–21214 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, L. F.

W. Yan, L. F. Shen, Y. Yuan, and T. J. Yang, “Interaction Between Negative and Positive Index Medium Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3560–3566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

H. Shin and S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tae, H.-S.

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H.-S. Tae, and J.-H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

W. Ding, D. Tang, Y. Liu, L. Chen, and X. Sun, “Compact and low crosstalk waveguide crossing using impedance matched metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K.

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, R. Islam, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “An ultra-short contra-directional coupler utilizing surface plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7279–7290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

J. Pan, K. T. He, Z. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Realization of subwavelength guiding utilizing coupled wedge plasmon polaritons in splitted groove waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16722–16732 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B. L.

B. L. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary, transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

W. Liu, A. A. Sukhorukov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, C. G. Poulton, Z. Y. Xu, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Complete spectral gap in coupled dielectric waveguides embedded into metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

W. Yan, L. F. Shen, Y. Yuan, and T. J. Yang, “Interaction Between Negative and Positive Index Medium Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3560–3566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. J.

W. Yan, L. F. Shen, Y. Yuan, and T. J. Yang, “Interaction Between Negative and Positive Index Medium Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3560–3566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

W. Yan, L. F. Shen, Y. Yuan, and T. J. Yang, “Interaction Between Negative and Positive Index Medium Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3560–3566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, S. Q.

S. Q. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. J. Li, and E. Y.-B. Pun, “Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Q. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. J. Li, and E. Y.-B. Pun, “Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 8(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9287–9292 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Wu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Guided modes with imaginary, transverse wave number in a slab waveguide with negative permittivity and permeability,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9386–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. L.

Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9287–9292 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Mater. Today

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Nano Lett.

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Nat. Photonics

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Nature

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Opt. Express

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