Abstract

A model for spectra of the phosphor-coated white LED (p-W LED) with a blue chip, a red chip, and green and yellow phosphors is presented. The optimal spectra of p-W LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2700–6500 K have been obtained with a nonlinear program for maximizing luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) under conditions of both color-rendering indices (CRIs) and special CRIs of R9 strong red above 98. The simulation results show that p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue (450 nm) chip, one AlGaInP red (634 nm) chip, and green (507 nm) and yellow (580 nm) silicate phosphors can realize white lights with CRIs of about 98 and special CRIs of R9 for strong red above 98. The average of the special CRIs R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) is above 95. R13 for the skin of women’s faces at about 100, as well as LERs above 296 lm/W at CCTs of 2700–6500 K. LERs of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip, one AlGaInP red chip, and green and yellow silicate phosphors increased by 19–49% when compared with that of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip and green and yellow silicate phosphors, as well as red nitride phosphor.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. International Commission on Illumination, Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources, ISBN 978–3900734572 (1995).
  3. Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Speier and M. Salsbury, “Color temperature tunable white light LED system,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371F, 63371F-12 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “Ca9La(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: an emission-tunable phosphor through efficient energy transfer for white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5089–5099 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5089 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color qulity scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the questions,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3607 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “Ca9La(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: an emission-tunable phosphor through efficient energy transfer for white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5089–5099 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5089 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color qulity scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3607 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

I. Speier and M. Salsbury, “Color temperature tunable white light LED system,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371F, 63371F-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the questions,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-F.

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. M.

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “Ca9La(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: an emission-tunable phosphor through efficient energy transfer for white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5089–5099 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5089 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhajed, S.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K. W.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, U.

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3607 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color qulity scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, Th.

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, G. X.

G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, H.-C.

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, N.-C.

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. H.

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “Ca9La(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: an emission-tunable phosphor through efficient energy transfer for white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5089–5099 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5089 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, T. W.

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, H. K.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. H.

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. R.

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirhosseini, R.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3607 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color qulity scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salsbury, M.

I. Speier and M. Salsbury, “Color temperature tunable white light LED system,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371F, 63371F-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J. M.

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. S.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speier, I.

I. Speier and M. Salsbury, “Color temperature tunable white light LED system,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371F, 63371F-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Won, Y. H.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Worthey, J.

J. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the questions,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. H.

G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatric semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

J. Worthey, “Color rendering: asking the questions,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color qulity scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3607 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “Ca9La(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+: an emission-tunable phosphor through efficient energy transfer for white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5089–5099 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5089 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8187 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mirhosseini, M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved color rendering and luminous efficacy in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by use of dual-blue emitting active regions,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10806–10813 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10806 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, and H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Speier and M. Salsbury, “Color temperature tunable white light LED system,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371F, 63371F-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. M. Shah, P. H. Leung, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 178–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

International Commission on Illumination, Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources, ISBN 978–3900734572 (1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model and real SPDs of typical green, yellow and red phosphors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative emission spectra of eleven green (507–546 nm), nine yellow/orange (554 –606 nm) silicate phosphors and six red (631–667 nm) nitride phosphors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Predicted and measured SPDs of the WW LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Special CRIs of R1 to R14 of the WW LED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative SPDs of a InGaN blue (λB = 450.0 nm and Δλ0B = 30.0 nm) chip, a AlGaInP red (λR = 634.0 nm and Δλ0R = 20.0 nm) chip, green (λg = 507.0 nm and Δλ0g = 66.1 nm) and yellow (λy = 580.0 nm and Δλ0y = 81.1 nm) silicate phosphors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimal SPDs of p-W LEDs with the InGaN blue (λB = 450.0 nm and Δλ0B = 30.0 nm) chip, the AlGaInP red (λR = 634.0 nm and Δλ0R = 20.0 nm) chip, green (λg = 507.0 nm and Δλ0g = 66.1 nm) and yellow (λy = 580.0 nm and Δλ0y = 81.1 nm) silicate phosphors at different CCTs. (a) CCT = 2700 K. (b) CCT = 3000 K. (c) CCT = 3500 K. (d) CCT = 4000 K. (e) CCT = 4500 K. (f) CCT = 5000 K. (g) CCT = 5700 K. (h) CCT = 6500 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative SPDs of p-W LEDs with the InGaN blue chip (λB = 450.0 nm and Δλ0B = 30.0 nm), green (λg = 507.0 nm and Δλ0g = 66.1 nm) and yellow (λy = 580.0 nm and Δλ0y = 81.1 nm) silicate phosphors, as well as red (λr = 655.0 nm and Δλ0r = 95.3 nm) nitride phosphor at different CCTs. (a) CCT = 2700 K. (b) CCT = 3000 K. (c) CCT = 3500 K. (d) CCT = 4000 K. (e) CCT = 4500 K. (f) CCT = 5000 K. (g) CCT = 5700 K. (h) CCT = 6500 K.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative SPDs of p-W LEDs in W/R clusters at different CCTs. (a) CCT = 4167 K. (b) CCT = 4474 K. (c) CCT = 5001 K. (d) CCT = 5543 K. (e) CCT = 6123 K. (f) CCT = 6652 K. (g) CCT = 7447 K. (h) CCT = 8396 K.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation results of p-W LEDs with the InGaN blue (λB = 450.0 nm and Δλ0B = 30.0 nm) chip, the AlGaInP red (λR = 634.0 nm and Δλ0R = 20.0 nm) chip, and Green (λg = 507.0 nm and Δλ0g = 66.1 nm) and Yellow (λy = 580.0 nm and Δλ0y = 81.1 nm) Silicate Phosphors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulation Results of p-W LEDs with the InGaN Blue Chip (λB = 450.0 nm and Δλ0B = 30.0 nm), Green (λg = 507.0 nm and Δλ0g = 66.1 nm) and Yellow (λy = 580.0 nm and Δλ0y = 81.1 nm) Silicate Phosphors, and Red (λr = 655.0 nm and Δλ0r = 95.3 nm) Nitride Phosphor

Tables Icon

Table 3 CCTs of p-W LEDs (with a InGaN Blue Chip, Green and Yellow Silicate Phosphors), Relative Radiation Fluxes, and Relative Luminous Fluxes of the Red LEDs and p-W LEDs in the W/R LED Clusters

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( λ ) = [ g ( λ , λ 0 , Δ λ ) + k 1 g ( λ , λ 0 , Δ λ ) k 2 ] / ( 1 + k 2 ) ,
S p W ( λ )   =  q B S B ( λ )   +  q g S g ( λ )   +  q y S y ( λ )   +  q R S R ( λ ) ,
F ( λ B ,   λ g ,   λ y ,   λ R ,  q R )   =  LER  ( under conditions of CRI ³ 98 and R9 ³ 98 ) ,

Metrics