Abstract

A compact low beat-frequency dual-polarization distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser whose beat frequency can be varied, for high-frequency ultrasound detection has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The laser was fabricated in small birefringent commercial erbium-doped fiber. It operated in a robust single-longitude mode with output power of more than 1 mW and high signal-to-noise ratio better than 60 dB. Induced birefringence to the fiber during the UV inscription process is small (~10−7) and consequently the laser beats at a low frequency of ~20 MHz which is at least one order of magnitude smaller than previously reported results, making frequency down-conversion unnecessary. The beat frequency can be adjusted by controlling the side-exposure time of the UV light irradiating the gain cavity, providing a simple approach to multiplex a large number of DBR fiber lasers of different frequencies in series using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) technique. The proposed DBR fiber laser is also temperature insensitive, making it a good candidate for hydrophone applications.

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  1. H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, and W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18(22), 1976–1978 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er(3+)-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1869–1871 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
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  17. J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
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  18. J. J. Zayhowski, “Limits imposed by spatial hole burning on the single-mode operation of standing-wave laser cavities,” Opt. Lett. 15(8), 431–433 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Jiang, “Wavelength division multiplexing addressed four-element fiber optical laser hydrophone array,” Appl. Opt. 46(15), 2939–2948 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er(3+)-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1869–1871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, and W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18(22), 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. J. Zayhowski, “Limits imposed by spatial hole burning on the single-mode operation of standing-wave laser cavities,” Opt. Lett. 15(8), 431–433 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, and J. A. Bucaro, “Acoustically induced birefringence in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(9), 1159–1162 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, and W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18(22), 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bløtekjaer, K.

S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brändle, H.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucaro, J. A.

L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, and J. A. Bucaro, “Acoustically induced birefringence in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(9), 1159–1162 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, and J. A. Bucaro, “Acoustically induced birefringence in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(9), 1159–1162 (1982).
[CrossRef]

De Paula, R. P.

L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, and J. A. Bucaro, “Acoustically induced birefringence in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(9), 1159–1162 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flax, L.

L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, and J. A. Bucaro, “Acoustically induced birefringence in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(9), 1159–1162 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, J. L.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hadeler, O.

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haroud, K.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. X.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, “Wavelength division multiplexing addressed four-element fiber optical laser hydrophone array,” Appl. Opt. 46(15), 2939–2948 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersey, A. D.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. K.

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, K. P.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er(3+)-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1869–1871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laming, R. I.

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er(3+)-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1869–1871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, S. T.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er(3+)-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1869–1871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Løvseth, S. W.

S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltz, G.

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, and W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18(22), 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, and W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18(22), 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nash, P. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, S. F.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, H. G. Park, and B. Y. Kim, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18(4), 317–319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, D. C.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. L.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochat, E.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rønnekleiv, E.

S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjaer, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4821–4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. Q.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. N.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, “Limits imposed by spatial hole burning on the single-mode operation of standing-wave laser cavities,” Opt. Lett. 15(8), 431–433 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the cross-section of small-core Er-doped active fiber (a) and its induced refractive index modulation under UV-light side-inscription (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram and inscription process of an Er-doped DBR fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the ultrasound detection system (a) and photographs of an Er-doped DBR fiber laser ultrasound detector (b) and display of the measured spectrum (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat-signal spectrum of the DBR fiber laser. Insert shows the laser output optical spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beat signal spectrum of DBR fiber laser (18.6 MHz) with an ultrasound of 10 MHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beat-signal spectra of the DBR fiber laser versus ultrasounds at different (a) frequencies and (b) amplitudes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Beat-frequency of the DBR fiber laser by irradiating the gain cavity of the DBR laser with different UV-light exposure times.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Birefringence of the gain cavity of the DBR fiber laser versus UV-light exposure time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beat signal spectra versus temperature.

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