Abstract

A compact low beat-frequency dual-polarization distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser whose beat frequency can be varied, for high-frequency ultrasound detection has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The laser was fabricated in small birefringent commercial erbium-doped fiber. It operated in a robust single-longitude mode with output power of more than 1 mW and high signal-to-noise ratio better than 60 dB. Induced birefringence to the fiber during the UV inscription process is small (~10−7) and consequently the laser beats at a low frequency of ~20 MHz which is at least one order of magnitude smaller than previously reported results, making frequency down-conversion unnecessary. The beat frequency can be adjusted by controlling the side-exposure time of the UV light irradiating the gain cavity, providing a simple approach to multiplex a large number of DBR fiber lasers of different frequencies in series using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) technique. The proposed DBR fiber laser is also temperature insensitive, making it a good candidate for hydrophone applications.

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References

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2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Ball, G. A.

Bennion, I.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bløtekjaer, K.

Bohnert, K.

Brändle, H.

Bucaro, J. A.

Caplen, J. E.

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. L. W.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cole, J. H.

De Paula, R. P.

Dong, L.

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dong, X. Y.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flax, L.

Frank, A.

Gardner, J. L.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hadeler, O.

Haroud, K.

He, S. L.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hill, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, D. X.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

Jackson, D. A.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Kersey, A. D.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H. K.

Kim, S. K.

Koo, K. P.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Laming, R. I.

Lau, S. T.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

Loh, W. H.

Løvseth, S. W.

Marrone, M. J.

Meltz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Nash, P. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, S. F.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, H. G.

Price, D. C.

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. L.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rashleigh, S. C.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rashleigh and M. J. Marrone, “Temperature dependence of stress birefringence in an elliptically clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(2), 127–129 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rochat, E.

Rønnekleiv, E.

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. Q.

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y. N.

Webb, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. H. Loh, L. Dong, and J. E. Caplen, “Single-sided output Sn/Er/Yb distributed feedback fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(15), 2151–2153 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on fiber distributed Bragg reflector laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 169–171 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 548–550 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. L. W. Chan, K. S. Chiang, D. C. Price, and J. L. Gardner, “The characterization of high-frequency ultrasonic fields using a polarimetric optical fiber sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(4), 1565–1570 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(2), 312–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Sun, J. L. Qiu, and D. X. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1-3), 193–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “A fibre laser hydrophone array,” Proc. SPIE 3860, 55–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. Fostera, A. Tikhomirova, M. Englundb, H. Inglisb, G. Edvellb, and M. Milnesa, “A 16 channel fibre laser sensor array,” ACOFT/AOS 10–13 (2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the cross-section of small-core Er-doped active fiber (a) and its induced refractive index modulation under UV-light side-inscription (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram and inscription process of an Er-doped DBR fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the ultrasound detection system (a) and photographs of an Er-doped DBR fiber laser ultrasound detector (b) and display of the measured spectrum (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat-signal spectrum of the DBR fiber laser. Insert shows the laser output optical spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beat signal spectrum of DBR fiber laser (18.6 MHz) with an ultrasound of 10 MHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beat-signal spectra of the DBR fiber laser versus ultrasounds at different (a) frequencies and (b) amplitudes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Beat-frequency of the DBR fiber laser by irradiating the gain cavity of the DBR laser with different UV-light exposure times.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Birefringence of the gain cavity of the DBR fiber laser versus UV-light exposure time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beat signal spectra versus temperature.

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