Abstract

In this paper we demonstrate photonic band-edge laser emission from emulsion-based polymer dispersed liquid crystals. The lasing medium consists of dye-doped chiral nematic droplets dispersed within a polymer matrix that spontaneously align as the film dries. Such lasers can be easily formed on single substrates with no alignment layers. The system combines the self-organizing periodic structure of chiral nematic liquid crystals with the simplicity of the emulsion procedure so as to produce a material that retains the emission characteristics of band-edge lasers yet can be readily coated. Sequential and stacked layers demonstrate the possibility of achieving simultaneous multi-wavelength laser output from glass, metallic, and flexible substrates.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Coles and S. M. Morris, “Liquid crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmidtke and E. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. S. Drzaic, Liquid crystal dispersions, (World Scientific, 1995)
  14. S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).
  15. A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).
  16. S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).
  17. P. S. Drzaic, “Nematic droplet/polymer films for high-contrast coloured reflective displays,” Displays 12(1), 2–13 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. S. Drzaic and A. Muller, “Droplet shape and reorientation fields in nematic droplet/polymer films,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1467–1475 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).
  20. C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. J. Coles and S. M. Morris, “Liquid crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and E. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

2004 (1)

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. S. Drzaic, “Nematic droplet/polymer films for high-contrast coloured reflective displays,” Displays 12(1), 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

P. S. Drzaic and A. Muller, “Droplet shape and reorientation fields in nematic droplet/polymer films,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1467–1475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. H.

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and S. M. Morris, “Liquid crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. J.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Doane, J. W.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic, “Nematic droplet/polymer films for high-contrast coloured reflective displays,” Displays 12(1), 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Drzaic and A. Muller, “Droplet shape and reorientation fields in nematic droplet/polymer films,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1467–1475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).

Ernst, T.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Fan, B.

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Findeisen-Tandel, S.

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Funamoto, K.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Green, S.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Hands, P. J. W.

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanelt, E.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Kim, S. T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lazarev, V. V.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Magyar, G.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Marhefka, D.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Marsico, S.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCoy, J.

P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).

Miller, N.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Montbach, E.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Morris, S. M.

H. J. Coles and S. M. Morris, “Liquid crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mowatt, C.

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

P. S. Drzaic and A. Muller, “Droplet shape and reorientation fields in nematic droplet/polymer films,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1467–1475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, F.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Ozaki, M.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pagliusi, P.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pishnyak, O.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Ramakrishnan, V.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, P.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanzari, M.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and E. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T.

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

Shibaev, P. V.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

Song, M. H.

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E.

J. Schmidtke and E. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teter, D.

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vithana, H. K. M.

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, R.

P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).

Wilkinson, T. D.

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye-doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Schmidtke and E. Terentjev, “Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based upon a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

P. S. Drzaic, “Nematic droplet/polymer films for high-contrast coloured reflective displays,” Displays 12(1), 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Mowatt, S. M. Morris, M. H. Song, T. D. Wilkinson, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. Pagliusi, and V. V. Lazarev, “Lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal cells: competition of Bragg and leaky modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(5), 053104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. S. Drzaic and A. Muller, “Droplet shape and reorientation fields in nematic droplet/polymer films,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1467–1475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible lasers made from cholesteric liquid crystal polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 413, 507–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. J. Coles and S. M. Morris, “Liquid crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, P. J. W. Hands, S. Findeisen-Tandel, R. H. Cole, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Polychromatic liquid crystal laser arrays towards display applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18827–18837 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1707–1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Two-dimensional liquid crystal laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 515–517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. S. Drzaic, R. Wiley, and J. McCoy, “High brightness and color contrast displays constructed from nematic droplet/polymer films incorporating pleochroic dyes,” Proc. SPIE 1080, 41–47 (1989).

SID J. (3)

S. V. Shiyanovskii, A. Khan, S. Green, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, D. Marhefka, and J. W. Doane, “Single substrate encapsulated cholesteric LCDs: Coatable, drapable, and foldable,” SID J. 14, 181–186 (2006).

A. Khan, S. V. Shiyanovskii, T. Schneider, E. Montbach, D. J. Davis, N. Miller, D. Marhefka, T. Ernst, F. Nicholson, and J. W. Doane, “Progress in flexible and drapable reflective cholesteric displays,” SID J. 15, 9–16 (2007).

S. V. Shiyanovskii, S. Green, A. Khan, G. Magyar, O. Pishnyak, and J. W. Doane, “Substrate-free cholesteric liquid-crystal displays,” SID J. 16, 113–115 (2008).

Other (1)

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid crystal dispersions, (World Scientific, 1995)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The formation of the Grandjean texture in chiral nematic droplets contained within emulsified samples. Pictorial representation of the drying and film-shrinkage mechanism by which initially spherical liquid crystal droplets (a) become oblate (b), leading to a uniform alignment of the helical axis normal to the substrate. This standing helix (Grandjean) texture is confirmed experimentally by viewing the sample between crossed polarizers through a microscope. The texture shows no apparent change when the sample is rotated through 0° (c) and 45° (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Band-edge lasing from an emulsified dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal. Input-output characteristics of the liquid crystal laser when optically excited at 532 nm (a), indicating a threshold of around 4 µJ/pulse, and the emission spectrum for both left and right circularly polarized light (LCP and RCP) (b), showing that the laser output is circularly polarized and indicative of band-edge lasing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Red, green and blue lasing LC emulsions. The emulsions can be painted and patterned onto glass substrates (a) without surface pre-treatment or alignment layers. When optically excited with a common pump at 430 nm, laser emission is observed in the red, green and blue (b), at wavelengths that coincide with the long-wavelength band-edges observed in pre-emulsified samples. Far-field emission spots of the red green and blue lasing emulsions are shown in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Paintable “white light lasers”. A stack of red, green and blue laser emulsions (a), when pumped with a single optical excitation source at 430 nm, gives three simultaneous laser emissions (b). The corresponding red, green and blue emissions combine, resulting in white light emission recorded in the far-field (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of the functionality of paintable lasers. Image (a) shows different LC laser emulsions painted onto a variety of substrates, including flexible PET (A), paper (B), glass (C, D and E), aluminium-coated glass (F), and patterned red, green and blue laser emulsions on glass (G and H). The emission from the red LC emulsion laser on an aluminium-coated glass substrate (F) is then used to illuminate a multi-phase hologram, and the successful replay field is illustrated in image (b).

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