Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time an optically pumped gas laser based on population inversion using a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The HC-PCF filled with 12C2H2 gas is pumped with ~5 ns pulses at 1.52 μm and lases at 3.12 μm and 3.16 μm in the mid-infrared spectral region. The maximum measured laser pulse energy of ~6 nJ was obtained at a gas pressure of 7 torr with a fiber with 20 dB/m loss near the lasing wavelengths. While the measured slope efficiencies of this prototype did not exceed a few percent due mainly to linear losses of the fiber at the laser wavelengths, 25% slope efficiency and pulse energies of a few mJ are the predicted limits of this laser. Simulations of the laser’s behavior agree qualitatively with experimental observations.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  26. J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Feasibility study of optically pumped molecular lasers with small quantum defect,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1075–1080 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-μm band,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1946–1951 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1946 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Feasibility study of optically pumped molecular lasers with small quantum defect,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1075–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. S. Light, F. Couny, Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16238–16243 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16238 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5035–5047 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-5035 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode pumped cesium laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 415–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(7), 1263–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “An optically pumped midinfrared HBr laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. R. Schlossberg and H. R. Fetterman, “Optically pumped vibrational transition laser in OCS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(6), 316–318 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. Y. Chang and O. R. Wood, “An optically pumped CO2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 598 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

T. Y. Chang and T. J. Bridges, “Laser action at 452, 496, and 541 μm in optically pumped CH3F,” Opt. Commun. 1(9), 423–426 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

J. v. Neumann and E. Wigner, “Über merkwürdige diskrete Eigenwerte,” Phys. Z. 30, 465 (1929).

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C. P. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, R. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

P. S. Light, F. Couny, Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16238–16243 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16238 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhagwat, A. R.

A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5035–5047 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-5035 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bridges, T. J.

T. Y. Chang and T. J. Bridges, “Laser action at 452, 496, and 541 μm in optically pumped CH3F,” Opt. Commun. 1(9), 423–426 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. J. W.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, N.

A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Feasibility study of optically pumped molecular lasers with small quantum defect,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1075–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-μm band,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1946–1951 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1946 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang and O. R. Wood, “An optically pumped CO2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 598 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang and T. J. Bridges, “Laser action at 452, 496, and 541 μm in optically pumped CH3F,” Opt. Commun. 1(9), 423–426 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

P. S. Light, F. Couny, Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16238–16243 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16238 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowell, P. G.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J. W.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrenreich, T.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode pumped cesium laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 415–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fetterman, H. R.

H. R. Schlossberg and H. R. Fetterman, “Optically pumped vibrational transition laser in OCS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(6), 316–318 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5035–5047 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-5035 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, A. K.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, S. L.

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(7), 1263–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hager, G.

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “An optically pumped midinfrared HBr laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hager, G. D.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heebner, J. E.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ionin, A. A.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C. R.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kletecka, C. S.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode pumped cesium laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 415–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lampson, A. I.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

P. S. Light, F. Couny, Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16238–16243 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16238 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macpherson, W. N.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, R. R. J.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCord, J. E.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIver, J. K.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Messerly, M. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, H. C.

J. E. McCord, H. C. Miller, G. Hager, A. I. Lampson, and P. G. Crowell, “Experimental investigation of an optically pumped mid-infrared carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(11), 1602–1612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “An optically pumped midinfrared HBr laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mohebbi, M.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nampoothiri, A. V. V.

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-μm band,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1946–1951 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1946 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, J. v.

J. v. Neumann and E. Wigner, “Über merkwürdige diskrete Eigenwerte,” Phys. Z. 30, 465 (1929).

Nicholson, J. W.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pax, P. H.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phipp, S. P.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S. P. Phipp, P. G. Crowell, A. I. Lampson, J. K. McIver, A. J. W. Brown, and G. D. Hager, “Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1041–1052 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, S. P.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode pumped cesium laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 415–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radzykewycz, D. T.

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “An optically pumped midinfrared HBr laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ratanavis, A.

A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Feasibility study of optically pumped molecular lasers with small quantum defect,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1075–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-μm band,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1946–1951 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1946 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

P. S. Light, F. Couny, Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Double photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16238–16243 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16238 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Feasibility study of optically pumped molecular lasers with small quantum defect,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1075–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, N. Campbell, and W. Rudolph, “Molecular C2H2 and HCN lasers pumped by an optical parametric oscillator in the 1.5-μm band,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1946–1951 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1946 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade lasing of molecular HBr in the four micron region pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. S. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlossberg, H. R.

H. R. Schlossberg and H. R. Fetterman, “Optically pumped vibrational transition laser in OCS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(6), 316–318 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shephard, J. D.

J. D. Shephard, W. N. Macpherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, and J. C. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shverdin, M. Y.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridharan, A. K.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stappaerts, E. A.

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R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode pumped cesium laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 415–416 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(7), 1263–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 717–723 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717 .
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J. v. Neumann and E. Wigner, “Über merkwürdige diskrete Eigenwerte,” Phys. Z. 30, 465 (1929).

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M. C. Heaven, J. Han, and K. Freel, “Rotational and vibrational energy transfer from the first overtone stretch of acetylene,” presented at the Sixty-fifth International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, 21–25 June 2010.

HITRAN database, http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/HITRAN/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Kagome HC-PCF fiber structure, guided mode profiles, and loss spectrum and group velocity. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of the cross section of the fiber used in the experiment. The diameter of the hollow core varies from 42.4 – 48.3 μm. The fiber pitch is ~ 23 μm, and the typical strut thickness is ~ 0.4 μm. Calculated core mode profiles at (b) 1.52 μm and (c) 3.12 μm. (d) Measured (black circles) and calculated (orange) fiber loss with the calculated group velocity (red).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup and laser beam profile. (a) Pulses from an OPO with a center wavelength of ~ 1.5 μm and 5 ns duration (shown in blue) are coupled into a kagome structured HC-PCF containing low pressure acetylene gas. Pump radiation is absorbed by the gas and laser radiation is detected from ro-vibrational transitions at wavelengths in the mid-IR (shown in green). Laser energy is filtered from pump energy by a polished germanium wafer and detected by a fast, room-temperature HgCdTe photovoltaic detector. (b) Close-up showing a fiber end suspended in a vacuum chamber. (c) Far-field mode profile: power of the collimated 3 μm beam passing through a 750-μm diameter circular aperture as the aperture is scanned transverse to the beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of the acetylene-filled PCF laser. The laser spectrum was taken using a grating spectrometer with ~ 1 nm resolution. The two peaks correspond to transitions from the J = 8, ν 1 + ν 3 pump state to the J = 7 and J = 9, ν 1 state, corresponding to wavelengths of 3123.2 nm and 3162.4 nm, respectively. The inset shows pertinent transitions on an energy level diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured dependence of laser pulse energy on gas pressure. Laser pulse energy increases with 12C2H2 gas pressure and peaks at ~ 6 nJ at 7 torr. The pump pulse energy launched into the 1.65 m long fiber was about 1 μJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and calculated laser pulse energy dependence on pump energy and fiber length. Laser pulse energy (a) measured and (b) calculated for various levels of pump pulse energy coupled into a 0.9 m long fiber containing 12C2H2 at pressures of 2.5 and 7 torr. (c) The calculated laser (green curves) and pump (blue curves) pulse energies at different positions along the fiber length containing 7 torr of 12C2H2 gas for two different launched pump pulse energies; the laser energy is multiplied by a factor of 50. (d-f) The calculated temporal profiles of the laser (green), and transmitted pump (blue) pulses along with the launched pump (gray) pulse at several positions along the fiber, where the laser power is scaled up by a factor of 5.5.

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