Abstract

A polarization-independent liquid crystal lens that is based on axially symmetric photoalignment is demonstrated. This liquid crystal lens is fabricated by combining radially and azimuthally aligned liquid crystal films with gradient alignments. The configurations of liquid crystals on the substrates are confirmed both optically and using a scanning electron microscope. The focal length of the polarization-independent liquid crystal lens can be controlled by applying various voltages. The device is simple to fabricate, and very convenient to use. It therefore has great practical potential.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
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  8. Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123–061125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123–061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Gural’nik and S. A. Samagin, “Optically controlled spherical liquid-crystal lens: theory and experiment,” Quantum Electron. 33(5), 430–434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. W. Chan and S. T. Kowel, “Imaging performance of the liquid-crystal-adaptive lens with conductive ladder meshing,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 8958–8969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, and P. G. Kornreich, “Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 23(2), 278–289 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and the Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. W.

W. W. Chan and S. T. Kowel, “Imaging performance of the liquid-crystal-adaptive lens with conductive ladder meshing,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 8958–8969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C.-P.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V. G.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cleverly, D. S.

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, and P. G. Kornreich, “Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 23(2), 278–289 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gural’nik, I. R.

I. R. Gural’nik and S. A. Samagin, “Optically controlled spherical liquid-crystal lens: theory and experiment,” Quantum Electron. 33(5), 430–434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guralnik, I. R.

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H.-K.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.-W.

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, S.-W.

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornreich, P. G.

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, and P. G. Kornreich, “Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 23(2), 278–289 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowel, S. T.

W. W. Chan and S. T. Kowel, “Imaging performance of the liquid-crystal-adaptive lens with conductive ladder meshing,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 8958–8969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, and P. G. Kornreich, “Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 23(2), 278–289 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L.-C.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.-H.

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123–061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-K.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Yu.

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A. F.

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123–061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samagin, S. A.

I. R. Gural’nik and S. A. Samagin, “Optically controlled spherical liquid-crystal lens: theory and experiment,” Quantum Electron. 33(5), 430–434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, R.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, A.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C.-L.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzeng, Y.-Y.

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Tzeng, S.-W. Ke, C.-L. Ting, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric polarization converters based on photo-aligned liquid crystal films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3768–3775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vdovin, G.

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123–061125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of axially symmetric (a) radial and (b) azimuthal cells under linearly polarized probing light. The insets in (a) and (b) show the LC director alignments. (c) Top-view, (e) side-view of LC structures in axially symmetric radial cell; (d) top-view, and (f) side-view of LC structures in axially symmetric azimuthal cell. P: polarization of probing light.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample fabrication setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of axially symmetric azimuthal cell under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Magnifications are (a) x 2500, (b) x 10000 (c) x 30000. Red dotted rectangles in insets are the observed areas on the azimuthal cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured phase retardations of an (a) radial and (b) azimuthal axially symmetric DDLC cell with a gradient pretilt angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unpolarized light incident onto a LC lens based on stacked radial axially symmetric DDLC cells.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Setup for measuring properties of polarization-independent liquid crystal lens device. (Cells A and B are radial and azimuthal, respectively.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Focal intensities of transmitted light are measured at under various operating conditions using a rotating analyzer.

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