Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a no-guard-interval (No-GI) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (CO-OFDM) system that uses Fractionally-Spaced Time-Domain Equalizers (FS-TDE) to simultaneously demultiplex and equalize each subcarrier. Least-mean-squares algorithms (LMS) tune each FS-TDE to a subcarrier. A short unique training sequence is transmitted on each subcarrier, allowing each FS-TDE to lock onto its subcarrier. After the initial training, the adaptive blind equalizers remain tuned to their respective subcarriers. Unlike previous systems, this system does not require digital filtering or mixing of each subcarrier to baseband, so is more computationally efficient. Error-free transmission was measured over 800 km of fiber with a three-subcarrier 30 Gb/s system and a five-subcarrier 33.33 Gb/s system. The required OSNRs for a BER of 10−3 were 8.6 dB and 9.3 dB respectively, which are within 1.5 dB of the theoretical limit for coherent systems.

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  1. K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, and N. Hanik, “Link-aware precoding for nonlinear optical OFDM transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OTuE4.
  4. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in 428-Gb/s multiband coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. JThA6.
  5. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Hillerkuss, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Teschke, G. Sigurdsson, K. Worms, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Novel optical fast Fourier transform scheme enabling real-time OFDM processing at 392 Gbit/s and beyond,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OWW3.
  8. A. J. Lowery, “Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers for use as optical OFDM demultiplexers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14129–14143 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Efficient digital coherent detection of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal by simultaneously detecting multiple carriers per sampling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OWO2.
  10. K. Takiguchi, T. Kitoh, A. Mori, M. Oguma, and H. Takahashi, “Integrated-optic OFDM demultiplexer using slab star coupler based optical DFT circuit,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2010), p. PD1.4.
  11. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw Hill, 2001).
  12. R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, “Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers for use as optical OFDM demultiplexers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14129–14143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Awadalla, A.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Behm, J. D.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. R.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Casas, R. A.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, L. B.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Endres, T. J.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Z.

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krause, D. J.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, R.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A. J.

A. J. Lowery, “Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers for use as optical OFDM demultiplexers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14129–14143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O'Sullivan, M.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sano, A.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schniter, P.

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takatori, Y.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. M.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.-T.

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, E.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. J. Lowery, “Design of Arrayed-Waveguide Grating Routers for use as optical OFDM demultiplexers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14129–14143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, and R. A. Casas, “Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: a review,” Proc. IEEE 86(10), 1927–1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Hillerkuss, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Teschke, G. Sigurdsson, K. Worms, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Novel optical fast Fourier transform scheme enabling real-time OFDM processing at 392 Gbit/s and beyond,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OWW3.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Efficient digital coherent detection of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal by simultaneously detecting multiple carriers per sampling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OWO2.

K. Takiguchi, T. Kitoh, A. Mori, M. Oguma, and H. Takahashi, “Integrated-optic OFDM demultiplexer using slab star coupler based optical DFT circuit,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2010), p. PD1.4.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw Hill, 2001).

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, and N. Hanik, “Link-aware precoding for nonlinear optical OFDM transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. OTuE4.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in 428-Gb/s multiband coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, San Diego, California, 2010), p. JThA6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Receiver structures: (a) previous design [5]; (b) proposed simplification where the Mixer, DFT and FS-TDE functions are replaced by a single FS-TDE function.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results from a single-polarization 3-subcarrier back-back system: (a) amplitude response of the FS-TDE after locking; (b) equalized constellations. SC – subcarrier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram showing the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted optical spectrum measured with a HRS: (left) 3-subcarriers; (right) 5-subcarriers. Colored arrows illustrate the positions of the subcarriers within the signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Received constellations after 800 km arranged according to the subcarrier’s frequency: (a) 3-subcarrers, OSNR of 15.3 dB; (b) 5-subcarriers, OSNR of 15.2 dB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average BER against OSNR measured in a 0.1 nm bandwidth: (a) 3-subcarriers; (b) 5-subcarriers.

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