Abstract

Optically pumped mixing in travelling-wave uni-travelling carrier photodiodes is proposed as a novel technique for detecting millimetre-wave signals. An experimental demonstration was performed at a frequency of 100 GHz. From DC measurements, an increase in the responsivity was found at high levels of optical power. The mixing mechanism is attributed to the variation of the responsivity with the applied reverse bias and the optical input power. The maximum intermediate frequency power was found to be −35 dBm for a 4 dBm radio frequency power, while an average conversion loss of 40 dB was achieved. A wide dynamic range of more than 42 dB was measured, limited by the maximum available millimetre-wave power.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tsuchiya and T. Hoshida, “Nonlinear Photodetection Scheme and Its System Applications to Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Wireless Down-Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1342–1350 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. Gomes and A. J. Seeds, “Novel optically pumped electronic mixer using a Mott diode structure,” Electron. Lett. 23(20), 1084–1085 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. C. Renaud, L. Ponnampalam, F. Pozzi, E. Rouvalis, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Photonically Enabled Communication Systems Beyond 1000 GHz,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics2008(MWP 2008), (Gold Coast, Australia), pp. 55–58.

2010 (4)

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Tsuchiya and T. Hoshida, “Nonlinear Photodetection Scheme and Its System Applications to Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Wireless Down-Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1342–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

N. J. Gomes and A. J. Seeds, “Novel optically pumped electronic mixer using a Mott diode structure,” Electron. Lett. 23(20), 1084–1085 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ajito, K.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.-G.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blundell, R.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S. D.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cámara Mayorga, I.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cannard, P. J.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, S. M.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Firth, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C. T.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, N. J.

N. J. Gomes and A. J. Seeds, “Novel optically pumped electronic mixer using a Mott diode structure,” Electron. Lett. 23(20), 1084–1085 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grine, A. D.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Güsten, R.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hisatake, S.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoshida, T.

M. Tsuchiya and T. Hoshida, “Nonlinear Photodetection Scheme and Its System Applications to Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Wireless Down-Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1342–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kado, Y.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, A.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasemann, C.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimberk, R.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohjiro, S.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kordoš, P.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kukutsu, N.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kunkel, R.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Künzel, H.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-I.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-S.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maezawa, M.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marso, M.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordquist, C. D.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pradas, P. M.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M. J.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roehle, H.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, D.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouvalis, E.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartorius, B.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schell, M.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlak, M.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, A.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Gomes and A. J. Seeds, “Novel optically pumped electronic mixer using a Mott diode structure,” Electron. Lett. 23(20), 1084–1085 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-W.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.-J.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanze, D.

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, C.-Y. E.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

M. Tsuchiya and T. Hoshida, “Nonlinear Photodetection Scheme and Its System Applications to Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Wireless Down-Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1342–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, P.

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, A.

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-S.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. W.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kohjiro, K. Kikuchi, M. Maezawa, T. Furuta, A. Wakatsuki, H. Ito, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, and Y. Kado, “A 0.2–0.5 THz single-band heterodyne receiver based on a photonic local oscillator and a superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. J. Gomes and A. J. Seeds, “Novel optically pumped electronic mixer using a Mott diode structure,” Electron. Lett. 23(20), 1084–1085 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, and R. Blundell, “A photomixer local oscillator for a 630-GHz heterodyne receiver,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 9(6), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, and Y.-S. Lin, “Near-Ballistic Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode- Based V-Band Optoelectronic Mixers with Internal up-Conversion-Gain, Wide Modulation Bandwidth, and Very High Operation Current Performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 939–941 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsuchiya and T. Hoshida, “Nonlinear Photodetection Scheme and Its System Applications to Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Wireless Down-Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1342–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Cámara Mayorga, P. M. Pradas, M. Mikulics, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, K. Jacobs, M. Marso, H. Lüth, and P. Kordoš, “Terahertz photonic mixers as local oscillators for hot electron bolometer and superconductor-insulator-superconductor astronomical receivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. Pan, Z. Li, and J. C. Campbell, “High-Power High-Responsivity Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode Used as V-Band Optoelectronic mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(8), 1184–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

B. Sartorius, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, D. Schmidt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, and M. Schell, “Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 µm telecom technologies,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15001–15007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PIERS Online (1)

T. Nagatsuma, A. Kaino, S. Hisatake, K. Ajito, H.-J. Song, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Continuous-wave Terahertz Spectroscopy System Based on Photodiodes,” PIERS Online 6(4), 390–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C, 61940C-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. C. Renaud, L. Ponnampalam, F. Pozzi, E. Rouvalis, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Photonically Enabled Communication Systems Beyond 1000 GHz,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics2008(MWP 2008), (Gold Coast, Australia), pp. 55–58.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental Arrangement used for Optoelectronic Mixing experiments at 100 GHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DC Photocurrent versus reverse bias for various levels of optical input power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibrated IF power versus applied bias for different levels of optical input power. The incoming calibrated RF power was kept constant at approximately 4 dBm and the IF was 50 kHz for all measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibrated IF power versus applied bias for different levels of optical input power. The incoming calibrated RF power was 1 dBm (red), −9 dBm (blue) and −19 dBm (green).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IF Power versus RF power for a certain LO value (solid line: linear fit) at a reverse bias voltage of 4 V.

Metrics