Abstract

We report on the effect of embedded silica nanospheres on improving the performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The silica nanospehres were coated on the selectively etched GaN using a spin-coating method. With the embedded silica nanospheres structures, we achieved a smaller reverse leakage current due to the selective defect blocking-induced crystal quality improvement. Moreover, the reflectance spectra show strong reflectance modulations due to the different refractive indices between the GaN and silica nanospheres. By using confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy, a strong light emission from silica nanospheres demonstrates that the silica nanospheres acted as a reflector. We found that the optimized embedded silica nanospheres structure, whose the average size of the etched pits was about 3.5 μm and EPD was 3 x 107 cm−2, could enhance light output power by a factor of 2.23 due to enhanced the probability of light scattering at silica nanospheres.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  19. M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashraf, H.

J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barber, Z. H.

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M. D.

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carr, E. C.

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H. K.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M. W.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. R.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. W.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, R. F.

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, H. I.

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, M. N.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferdous, M. S.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Figiel, J. J.

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goto, H.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. S.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hageman, P. R.

J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanada, T.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, M.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S. D.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. K.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoki, C. K.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. K.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, B. H.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, T. S.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurai, S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. B.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. D.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. R.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. N.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. R.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McLellan, J.

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-T.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morishima, Y.

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O.-H.

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naoi, Y.

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, K.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, D. C.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, T.-Y.

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. E.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, T.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tottori, S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. T.

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weyher, J. L.

J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J. Q.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. W.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yun, F.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheleva, T. S.

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. Xia, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, and J. McLellan, “Template-Assisted Self-Assembly of Spherical Colloids into Complex and Controllable Structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(12), 907–918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

J. L. Weyher, H. Ashraf, and P. R. Hageman, “Reduction of dislocation density in epitaxial GaN layers by overgrowth of defect-related etch pits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031913 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Ferdous, X. Wang, M. N. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Effect of threading defects on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, T. Yao, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, and J. S. Lee, “Origin of forward leakage current in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 132117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, S. N. Lee, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated on dielectric mask-embedded structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Rosner, E. C. Carr, M. J. Ludowise, G. Girolami, and H. I. Erikson, “Correlation of cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity with microstructural defects in epitaxial GaN grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 420 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O.-H. Nam, M. D. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, Y.-T. Moon, F. Yun, Ü. Özgür, J. Q. Xie, S. Doğan, H. Morkoç, C. K. Inoki, T. S. Kuan, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Effectiveness of TiN porous templates on the reduction of threading dislocations in GaN overgrowth by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moram, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, Z. H. Barber, and C. J. Humphreys, “Dislocation reduction in gallium nitride films using scandium nitride interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 152101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. J. Figiel, and G. T. Wang, “Dislocation density reduction in GaN by dislocation filtering through a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

Y. J. Park, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, and C.-H. Hong, “Selective Defect Blocking by Self-Assembled Silica Nanospheres for High Quality GaN Template,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(8), H287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. Sakai, T. Wang, Y. Morishima, and Y. Naoi, “A new method of reducing dislocation density in GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 334–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 4A), L398– L400 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of Light Ouput Power in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with a Nanotextured GaN Surface Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

H. K. Cho, J. H. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. W. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. S. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. R. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cho, J. B. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO(2).,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

S. W. Lee, D. C. Oh, H. Goto, J. S. Ha, H. J. Lee, T. Hanada, M. W. Cho, S. K. Hong, H. Y. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. W. Choi, J. H. Choi, J. H. Jang, J. E. Shin, J. S. Lee, and T. Yao, “Analysis of the relation between leakage current and dislocations in GaN-based light-emitting devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(1c), 37–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images before regrowth on (a) sample B, (b) sample C, (c) sample D, and (d) sample E.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic for all samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffuse reflectance spectra for all samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Light output power-current characteristic for all fabricated LEDs. (b) Beam profile for all samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CSEM image of sample E at an injection current of 1.5mA. (a) Top view CSEM image, and (b) spatial three-dimensional EL light emission from silica nanospheres.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detailed parameters used in the experiment and values of etched pit size and density

Metrics