Abstract

We designed, fabricated and characterized a nano-periodical highly-efficient blazed grating for extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. The grating was optimized by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method (RCWA) and milled into the top layer of a highly-reflective mirror for IR light. The XUV diffraction efficiency was determined to be around 20% in the range from 35.5 to 79.2 nm. The effects of the nanograting on the reflectivity of the IR light and non-linear effects introduced by the nanograting have been measured and are discussed.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (2)

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu and H. Zeng, “Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonic generation for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3315–3317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(11), 1780–1787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, B.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidam, T.

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(11), 1780–1787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graf, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grann, E. B.

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, M.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, C.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koppitsch, R.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(11), 1780–1787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozawa, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pommet, D. A.

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pupeza, I.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röser, F.

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, O.

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Träutlein, D.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, B.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wobrauschek, P.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu and H. Zeng, “Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonic generation for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3315–3317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

J. Wu and H. Zeng, “Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonic generation for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3315–3317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(11), 1780–1787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1077–1086 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, X. Gu, E. Fill, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Krausz, and T. Udem, “Highly sensitive dispersion measurement of a high-power passive optical resonator using spatial-spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26184–26195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

J. Wu and H. Zeng, “Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonic generation for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3315–3317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Cingöz, D. Yost, J. Ye, A. Ruehl, M. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “Power Scaling of High-Repetition-Rate HHG,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena (2010).

E. D. Palik, G. Ghosh, and E. J. Prucha, eds., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press New York, 1985).

J. Kaster, I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, C. Jocher, E. Fill, J. Limpert, R. Holzwarth, B. Bernhardt, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Krausz, “Towards MW Average Powers in Ultrafast High-Repetition-Rate Enhancement Cavities,” HILAS 2011, Istanbul.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the diffraction efficiency of a relief nanograting (a) and a blazed nanograting (b). Theoretically, the blazed grating can achieve an efficiency of around 20%, which is considerably higher than for a relief grating (around 10%), (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image of the nanostructured blazed grating. The grating is etched into the uppermost SiO2 layer. The groove period is 510 nm; groove depth is 60nm and aspect ratio is 70%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the experimental setup for the diffraction efficiency measurements. The entire setup is placed in a vacuum chamber. The broadband XUV radiation (see inset) is generated by a few-cycle phase-stabilized Ti:Sa laser pulse (750 nm, 4 fs) via HHG in a Xe gas jet. An aluminium filter allows transmission of XUV light below 79.2 nm while removing the residual IR light. The XUV is either diffracted by the blazed nanograting or reflected by a flat gold mirror and then steered into an XUV spectrometer by another gold mirror. In order to compensate for the angular dispersion of the nanograting the second gold mirror could be translated and rotated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The measured ratios of XUV intensities. R0th/gold is the ratio of 0th order efficiency of the grating and gold mirror. The error bars given for the black curve stem from drifts in the XUV spectrum and are determined as 0.03. R-1st/0th is the ratio of −1st and 0th order efficiency of the grating. The error bars given for the red curve are statistical and correspond to the standard deviation (σ). (b) The calculated −1st order efficiency (red curve) and the extracted −1st order efficiency (black curve) from experiments. The error bars are based on the ones in (a) and they take into account systematic errors due to the calibration of the reflectivity by using the gold mirror. These errors are determined as 0.09 in the range from 66 nm to 74 nm and 0.07 at other wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured losses of the nanograting and dielectric mirror at the fundamental wavelength. The average of the loss of the grating is lower than 300 ppm (corresponding to a reflectivity > 99.97%), while the dielectric mirror without grating has a loss lower than 60 ppm (reflectivity > 99.994%). The error bars are statistical and correspond to the standard deviation (σ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Z-scan experimental setup: the nanograting is scanned under a 60° angle of incidence through the focused infrared laser beam with 1040 nm central wavelength, 40 W average power, 78 MHz repetition rate and 200 fs pulse duration. The signal transmitted through the mirror is monitored with an UV spectrometer. The focus of focusing lens is 150 mm, focus diameter is 55 µm, and collimated IR beam diameter is 3.6 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Z-scan measurement results. The measurement gives insight into the optical properties of the high power nonlinearity introduced by the nanograting: the increase of the third harmonic intensities generated at the nanograting and at the plane surface of the same dielectric mirror is around 30%. The error bars for the red and black curves are statistical and correspond to the standard deviation (σ).

Equations (1)

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Eff 1st ( λ )   = R 1st / 0 th ( λ )   ×  R 0 th / gold ( λ )   ×  ref gold ( λ )

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