Abstract

A new type of index-guided photonic crystal fiber is proposed to enhance chemical sensing capability by introducing a hollow high index ring defect that consists of the central air hole surrounded by a high index GeO2 doped SiO2 glass ring. Optical properties of the fundamental guided mode were numerically analyzed using the full-vector finite element method varying the design parameters of both the defects in the center and the hexagonal air-silica lattice in the cladding. Enhanced evanescent wave interaction in the holey region and lower confinement loss by an order of magnitude were achieved simultaneously, which shows a high potential in hyper sensitive fiber-optic chemical sensing applications.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(12), 4269–4283 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Kim, U. Paek, and K. Oh, “New defect design in index guiding holey fiber for uniform birefringence and negative flat dispersion over a wide spectral range,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6039–6050 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6039 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
[CrossRef]

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-11-1273 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Confinement losses in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 236–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
[PubMed]

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, and B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

1984

J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4486–4493 (1984), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-23-24-4486 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-55-10-1205 .
[CrossRef]

Baggett, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barretto, E. C. S.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brechet, F.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chesini, G.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. F.

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, and B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cucinotta, A.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
[CrossRef]

D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
[PubMed]

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, and B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

de Sterke, C. M.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
[CrossRef]

Duan, K.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang-di, Z.

Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrarini, D.

D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
[PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4486–4493 (1984), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-23-24-4486 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M. A. R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, U. Paek, and K. Oh, “New defect design in index guiding holey fiber for uniform birefringence and negative flat dispersion over a wide spectral range,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6039–6050 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6039 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
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J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
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S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Confinement losses in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 236–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, Y. C.

X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lwin, R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-55-10-1205 .
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-11-1273 .
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Marcou, J.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
[CrossRef]

Min, Z.

Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, and B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Oh, K.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, U. Paek, and K. Oh, “New defect design in index guiding holey fiber for uniform birefringence and negative flat dispersion over a wide spectral range,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6039–6050 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6039 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.

S. Kim, U. Paek, and K. Oh, “New defect design in index guiding holey fiber for uniform birefringence and negative flat dispersion over a wide spectral range,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6039–6050 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6039 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagnoux, D.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pei-da, Y.

Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-11-1273 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polynkin, A.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-11-1273 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polynkin, P.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-11-1273 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, G. B.

X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S. C.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
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K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Confinement losses in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 236–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-2-164 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selleri, S.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
[CrossRef]

D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
[PubMed]

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Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
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X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
[CrossRef]

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G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, J. Norris, D. F. Clark, and B. Culshaw, “Evanescent-wave chemical sensors—a theoretical evaluation,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 227–238 (1991).

Sun, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
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T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
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D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
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A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
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Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-18-3509 .
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Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
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T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-21-1660 .
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Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
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X. Yu, Y. Sun, G. B. Ren, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and Y. C. Kwok, “Evanescent Field Absorption Sensor Using a Pure-Silica Defected-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 336–338 (2008).
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Zhao, W.

Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
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Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
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D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
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A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
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A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, “Perturbation Analysis of Dispersion Properties in Photonic Crystal Fibers Through the Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1433–1442 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-20-8-1433 .
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K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-2-524 .
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I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-55-10-1205 .
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
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Z. Xu, K. Duan, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4527–4531 (2009).
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C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056 .
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D. Ferrarini, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1314–1319 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-23-1314 .
[PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, U. Paek, and K. Oh, “New defect design in index guiding holey fiber for uniform birefringence and negative flat dispersion over a wide spectral range,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6039–6050 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6039 .
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F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 181–191 (2000).
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Z. Zhi-guo, Z. Fang-di, Z. Min, and Y. Pei-da, “Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(1), 167–174 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) prior PCF with a central air-hole defect with the diameter dc [9-11], (b) proposed PCF with a hollow high index ring defect, and (c) its enlarged view with structural parameters: central hole diameter dc , ring width wring, and the relative index difference of the ring Δring . PML is perfect matched layer used in numerical analysis. The cladding air holes are characterized by their diameter, d, and pitch, Λ. Here we assumed 5 layers of air holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective index (Re[neff ]) of the fundamental mode by (a) relative index difference (Δring ) and (b) doping width (wring ). Here we set Λ = 2.3μm, d = 1.4μm for the cladding, dc = 1.2μm for the central hole, and ns = 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the modal intensity distribution (a)-(b), confinement loss (c) and relative sensitivity (d) between the proposed PCF and the prior PCF and with the same central hole diameter dc . We set the wavelength at λ = 1.5μm for modal distribution comparison, (a)-(d). The proposed PCF had Δring = 1.2% and wring = 0.6μm. Here we set Λ = 2.3μm, d = 1.4μm for the cladding, dc = 1.2μm for the central hole, and ns = 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of optical properties (a) confinement loss and (b) relative sensitivity of the proposed PCF (solid lines) with those of the prior PCF (dotted line). Here, we varied the relative index differences Δring of the proposed PCF with the fixed wring = 0.6μm and set the central hole size dc = 1.2μm along with Λ = 2.3μm, d = 1.4μm, and ns = 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of optical properties - (a) confinement loss and (b) relative sensitivity of the proposed PCF (solid lines) with those of the prior PCF (dotted line). Here, we varied the ring width wring of the proposed PCF and set the central hole size dc = 1.2μm along with Λ = 2.3μm, d = 1.4μm, ns = 1, and Δring = 1.2%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of optical properties - (a) confinement loss and (b) relative sensitivity of the proposed PCF (solid lines) with those of the prior PCF (dotted line). Here, we further increased the central hole size to be the same as the cladding hole diameter, dc = d = 1.4μm (orange colored plot). We set Λ = 2.3μm, ns = 1, and wring = 0.6μm, Δring = 2.0%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The schematic diagram of splicing between conventional single mode fibers (SMF) and PCFs. The dark regions correspond to the GeO2 doped silica. The modal intensity distributions at the splice interface are shown in the inset. (b) Estimated splicing as a function of the collapsed hole diameter.

Equations (4)

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× ( μ r 1 × E ) k 0 2 ( ε r j σ ω ε 0 ) E = 0.
confinement loss = 8.686 Im [ 2 π λ n e f f ] ,
A = log I 0 I T = r ε L C , r = n s Re [ n e f f ] f ,
f = s a m p l e Re ( E x H y * E y H x * ) d x d y / t o t a l Re ( E x H y * E y H x * ) d x d y ,

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