Abstract

The internal structure of nanostructured air-silica fiber probes have been characterized using a combined focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy technique. The collapse rate of the air-holes is shown to differ substantially between a regular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and the quasi-periodic Fractal fiber. The integrity of the Fractal fiber structure is maintained down to an outer diameter as small as 120 nm, whereas the air-holes of the regular PCF begin to collapse when the outer diameter is approximately 820 nm. The observed smallest hole diameter of 10 nm is suggested to be due to physical limits imposed by the molecular structure of silica. These results confirm structural inferences made in previous publications.

© 2011 OSA

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2009 (1)

2007 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, P. J.

Birks, T. A.

Bolger, J. A.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Cahill, L. W.

Canning, J.

C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandalia, J. K.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Couny, F.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cruz, C. H. B.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Digweed-Lyytikäinen, K.

Domachuk, P.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3209–3217 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-14-3209 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-776 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eom, J. B.

Fragnito, H. L.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, B. C.

C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holton, M.

Huntington, S. T.

C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jamieson, D. N.

Katsifolis, J.

Kerbage, C.

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K. W. Park, “Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,” Fiber Int. Opt. 23(6), 439–446 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Knight, J. C.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosinski, S. G.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liu, X.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lizé, Y. K.

Lou, J.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

Lyytikainen, K.

Magi, E. C.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mägi, E. C.

Maier, S. A.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martelli, C.

Mason, M. W.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Moon, D. S.

Morrison, G. H.

Nguyen, H. C.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Olivero, P.

Orbons, S. M.

Paek, U.-C.

Park, K. W.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K. W. Park, “Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,” Fiber Int. Opt. 23(6), 439–446 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, A.

Rollinson, C. M.

Rubanov, S.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Shen, M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, K.-B.

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, “Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM,” Micron 38(4), 409–426 (2007).
[Crossref]

St. J. Russell, P.

Steblina, V.

Steel, M. J.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steinvurzel, P.

Stentz, A. J.

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valaskovic, G. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

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Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005).
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C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003).
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Fiber Int. Opt. (1)

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K. W. Park, “Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,” Fiber Int. Opt. 23(6), 439–446 (2004).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (9)

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Science (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrographs of the cleaved end-face of the untapered (a) regular PCF with an OD of 100 µm and (b) Fractal fiber with an OD of 125 µm [18].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images recorded before and after FIB slices were made on a single regular PCF tapered probe. The entire structure of air-holes is visible at Æ = 870 nm. All OD values are estimated to be accurate to within ± 10 nm. All images were recorded at different magnifications.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images recorded before and after FIB slices were made on a single Fractal fiber tapered probe. The entire structure of air-holes is clearly visible at an OD of approximately 425 nm. It should be noted that the entire structure of air-holes for the regular PCF is not visible until the OD is ~870 nm. All OD values are estimated to be accurate to within ± 10 nm. All images were recorded at different magnifications.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The evolution of average air-hole diameters versus the outer diameter of the regular PCF and the Fractal fiber probes. Error bars are not shown as they are smaller than the data points.

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