Abstract

We propose a reverse functional design of modified Fresnel lens (MFL) with discontinuous refractive surfaces to achieve cost-effective high optical performance with thin lenses. The reverse-geometry design process was optimized to control the spatial illuminance distribution (SID) of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Analysis results based on non-sequential ray-tracing simulations for flat SIDs indicated that the illuminance uniformity of LEDs with optimum MFL with different groove angles increased about 22 times, from 0.348 to 0.016, compared with the normalized standard deviation (NSD) of the general Fresnel lenses (GFL) with groove angles of 0°. In addition, the proposed method enhanced the color uniformity by reducing the circular yellow pattern. Tolerance analysis was carried out to determine tolerance limits for applying the optimum MFL in the assembly process. Finally, the feasibility of the reverse design process was verified by optical measurements of the optimum MFL.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

2009 (3)

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kudaev and P. Schreiber, “Optimization of symmetrical free-shape non-imaging concentrators for LED light source applications,” Proc. SPIE 5942(594209), 1–10 (2005).

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. J. Koshel, “Aspects of illumination system optimization,” Proc. SPIE 5529, 206–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Tai and R. Schwarte, “Design of an aspherical lens to generate a homogenous irradiance for three-dimensional sensors with a light-emitting-diode source,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5801–5805 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. V. Beck and K. A. Woodbury, “Inverse problems and parameter estimation: integration of measurements and analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 839–847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn, “Illumination lenses designed by extrinsic differential geometry,” Proc. SPIE 3428, 389–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J. V.

J. V. Beck and K. A. Woodbury, “Inverse problems and parameter estimation: integration of measurements and analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 839–847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergmans, J. W.

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W.-T.

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, P. F.

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-C.

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S.

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koshel, R. J.

R. J. Koshel, “Aspects of illumination system optimization,” Proc. SPIE 5529, 206–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kudaev, S.

S. Kudaev and P. Schreiber, “Optimization of symmetrical free-shape non-imaging concentrators for LED light source applications,” Proc. SPIE 5942(594209), 1–10 (2005).

Lim, J.

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linnartz, J. P.

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-C.

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohm, W.-S.

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parkyn, W. A.

W. A. Parkyn, “Illumination lenses designed by extrinsic differential geometry,” Proc. SPIE 3428, 389–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rietman, R.

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenk, T. C. W.

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, P.

S. Kudaev and P. Schreiber, “Optimization of symmetrical free-shape non-imaging concentrators for LED light source applications,” Proc. SPIE 5942(594209), 1–10 (2005).

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwarte, R.

W. Tai and R. Schwarte, “Design of an aspherical lens to generate a homogenous irradiance for three-dimensional sensors with a light-emitting-diode source,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5801–5805 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, W.

W. Tai and R. Schwarte, “Design of an aspherical lens to generate a homogenous irradiance for three-dimensional sensors with a light-emitting-diode source,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5801–5805 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, K. A.

J. V. Beck and K. A. Woodbury, “Inverse problems and parameter estimation: integration of measurements and analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 839–847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z. R.

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

W. Tai and R. Schwarte, “Design of an aspherical lens to generate a homogenous irradiance for three-dimensional sensors with a light-emitting-diode source,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5801–5805 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 234505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. V. Beck and K. A. Woodbury, “Inverse problems and parameter estimation: integration of measurements and analysis,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 839–847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and X. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

B. Kim, M. Choi, H. Kim, J. Lim, and S. Kang, “Elimination of flux loss by optimizing the groove angle in modified Fresnel lens to increase illuminance uniformity, color uniformity and flux efficiency in LED illumination,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17916–17927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kim, J. Kim, W.-S. Ohm, and S. Kang, “Eliminating hotspots in a multi-chip LED array direct backlight system with optimal patterned reflectors for uniform illuminance and minimal system thickness,” Opt. Express 18, 8596–8604 (2010).

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. W. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. P. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Sun, W.-T. Chien, I. Moreno, C.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. J. Koshel, “Aspects of illumination system optimization,” Proc. SPIE 5529, 206–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kudaev and P. Schreiber, “Optimization of symmetrical free-shape non-imaging concentrators for LED light source applications,” Proc. SPIE 5942(594209), 1–10 (2005).

W. A. Parkyn, “Illumination lenses designed by extrinsic differential geometry,” Proc. SPIE 3428, 389–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

B. Parkyna, and D. Pelkaa, “Free-form illumination lenses designed by a pseudo-rectangular lawnmower algorithm,” in Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems III, R. Winston, P. Benítez, eds., Proc. SPIE 6338, 633808:1–7 (2006).

Y. Honguh, Y. Takashima, H. Mihara, and M. Kitamura, “Illumination apparatus and a projection type image display apparatus using it,” US Patent 6264332.

I. Moreno, “Spatial distribution of LED radiation,” in The International Optical Design Conference, G.Gregory, J. Howard, J. Koshel, eds., Proc. SPIE 6342, 634216:1–7 (2006).

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