Abstract

Near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals were fabricated and their optical damage resistance was investigated. It was found that these crystals can withstand a light intensity of 20 MW/cm2 at 514.5 nm cw laser, 80 GW/cm2 at 532 nm pulse laser, and 120 kW/cm2 at 351 nm cw laser. The minimum switching field is only 1.00 kV/mm for 0.5 mol% zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystal. These properties suggest that the near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals will be an excellent candidate for quasi-phase matching technique.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Ren and Z. Y. Li, “Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7288–7299 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO.” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, New York, 1980), pp. 631–632.
  8. D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. Nightingale, W. J. Silva, G. E. Reade, A. Rybicki, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Fifty percent conversion efficiency second harmonic generation in magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate,” in Proc. SPIE 681, 20–24 (1986).
  19. G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).
  20. J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. L. Ren and Z. Y. Li, “Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7288–7299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Canalias, C.

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Corradi, G.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R. S.

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gather, B.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grachev, V. G.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Z.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, S.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuki, H.

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iyi, N.

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, B.

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jermann, F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klauer, S.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, A.

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levchuk, E. A.

G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).

Li, B.

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

M. L. Ren and Z. Y. Li, “Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7288–7299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lijuan, Z.

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luh, Y. S.

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maldutis, E. K.

G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).

Malovichko, G. I.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pryalkin, V. I.

T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, H.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, M. L.

M. L. Ren and Z. Y. Li, “Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7288–7299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinina, N. M.

T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupp, R.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, M.

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, F.

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takekawa, S.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terabe, K.

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Uesu, Y.

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T. R.

T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, J. K.

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zverev, G. M.

G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. K. Yamamoto, K. Kitamura, N. Iyi, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, “Increased optical damage resistance in Sc2O3-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2156–2158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, “New doped lithium niobate crystal with high resistance to photorefraction—LiNbO3:In,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 280–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(11), 1880–1882 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuroda, S. Kurimura, and Y. Uesu, “Domain inversion in ferroelectric MgO:LiNbO3 by applying electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1565–1567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Chen, B. Wu, B. Li, and S. Pan, “Laser-induced dark traces in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(23), 3384–3386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of stoichiometric LiNbO3 grown from melts containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Liu, Y. Kong, Q. Hu, R. Wu, W. Wang, X. Li, S. Chen, S. Liu, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(6), 1720–1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. S. Luh, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Stoichiometric LiNbO3 single-crystal fibers for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 85(1-2), 264–269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

areS. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Optical damage resistance and refractive indices in near-stoichiometric MgO-doped LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(1), L49–L51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

M. L. Ren and Z. Y. Li, “Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7288–7299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

B. Jacobsson, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3278–3280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett. 15(18), 996–998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. Kong, W. Li, H. Liu, S. Liu, S. Chen, X. Zhang, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “High resistance against ultraviolet photorefraction in zirconium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 10–12 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and Z. Lijuan, “Enhancement of ultraviolet photorefraction in highly magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 129–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, L. Shi, H. Chen, X. Zhang, and Y. Kong, “Investigations on the UV photorefractivity of LiNbO(3):Hf,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 601–603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet photorefractivity features in doped lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 70(9), 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

G. M. Zverev, E. A. Levchuk, and E. K. Maldutis, “Destruction of KDP, ADP, and LiNbO3 crystals by powerful laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 30(3), 400–403 (1970).

Other (2)

G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, “Measurements of optically induced refractive index damage of lithium niobate doped with different concentrations of MgO.” in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, New York, 1980), pp. 631–632.

J. L. Nightingale, W. J. Silva, G. E. Reade, A. Rybicki, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Fifty percent conversion efficiency second harmonic generation in magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate,” in Proc. SPIE 681, 20–24 (1986).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The absorption spectra of LN crystals with various compositions and doping levels of ZrO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distortion of transmitted laser beam spots after 5 minutes irradiation. The top is Zr05S and the bottom is Zr10S, except the first column is congruent one. The intensity from left to right is 8.0, 2.0 × 104 kW/cm2 at 514.5nm of Ar+ laser, 80 GW/cm2 at 532nm of Nd:YAG laser, and 120 kW/cm2 at 351nm of Ar+ laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The switching field of Zr:LN crystals as a function of the doping level of ZrO2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The light intensity against optical damage and change of refractive index of series of LiNbO3 crystals in visible-UV range

Metrics