Abstract

Optical isolation is a long pursued object with fundamental difficulty in integrated photonics. As a step towards this goal, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip wavelength-scale optical diodes that are made from the heterojunction between two different silicon two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal slabs with directional bandgap mismatch and different mode transitions. The measured transmission spectra show considerable unidirectional transmission behavior, in good agreement with numerical simulations. The experimental realization of on-chip optical diodes with wavelength-scale size using all-dielectric, passive, and linear silicon photonic crystal structures may help to construct on-chip optical logical devices without nonlinearity or magnetism, and would open up a road towards photonic computers.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).
  3. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Use of a graded gain random amplifier as an optical diode,” Opt. Lett. 26(12), 929–931 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. H. Gevorgyan, “Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field,” Tech. Phys. 47(8), 1008–1013 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. Treviño-Palacios, G. I. Stegeman, and P. Baldi, “Spatial nonreciprocity in waveguide second-order processes,” Opt. Lett. 21(18), 1442–1444 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Y. Chen and L. W. Chen, “Color separating with integrated photonic bandgap optical diodes: a numerical study,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10733–10739 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. L. Espinola, T. Izuhara, M. C. Tsai, R. M. Osgood, and H. Dötsch, “Magneto-optical nonreciprocal phase shift in garnet/silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 941–943 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Levy, “Nanomagnetic route to bias-magnet-free, on-chip Faraday rotators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(1), 254–260 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Dötsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 240–253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, “Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 637–639 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic-crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 2241–2249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. E. Serebryannikov, “One-way diffraction effects in photonic crystal gratings made of isotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 155117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).
  27. Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. E. Serebryannikov, “One-way diffraction effects in photonic crystal gratings made of isotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

R. L. Espinola, T. Izuhara, M. C. Tsai, R. M. Osgood, and H. Dötsch, “Magneto-optical nonreciprocal phase shift in garnet/silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 941–943 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

A. H. Gevorgyan, “Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field,” Tech. Phys. 47(8), 1008–1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic-crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 2241–2249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Mujumdar and H. Ramachandran, “Use of a graded gain random amplifier as an optical diode,” Opt. Lett. 26(12), 929–931 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bahlmann, N.

Baldi, P.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhandare, S.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

Chen, L. W.

Chen, Y. F.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dötsch, H.

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espinola, R. L.

Fan, S.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, “Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 637–639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, R.

Gevorgyan, A. H.

A. H. Gevorgyan, “Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field,” Tech. Phys. 47(8), 1008–1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

He, C.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertel, P.

Hu, X. Y.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izuhara, T.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, “Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 637–639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Levy, M. A.

Li, X. F.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Q.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R. J.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. C.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mingaleev, S. F.

Mujumdar, S.

Ni, X.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, S.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noe, R.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K. R.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popkov, A. F.

Ram, R. J.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, H.

Ren, C.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

A. E. Serebryannikov, “One-way diffraction effects in photonic crystal gratings made of isotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, “Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 637–639 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Takanishi, Y.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treviño-Palacios, C. G.

Tsai, M. C.

Wilkens, L.

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. A.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. F.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, T. R.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. B.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuromskyy, O.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Faraday rotation in an InP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 314–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, R. J. Liu, S. Feng, C. Ren, H. F. Yang, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, “Multi-channel filters via Γ-K and Γ-M waveguide coupling in two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, and R. Noe, “Non-magnetic 30 dB integrated optical isolator in III/V material,” Electron. Lett. 40(20), 1293–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. E. Serebryannikov, “One-way diffraction effects in photonic crystal gratings made of isotropic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic band gap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(10), 1368–1371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable unidirectional sound propagation through a sonic-crystal-based acoustic diode,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tech. Phys. (1)

A. H. Gevorgyan, “Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field,” Tech. Phys. 47(8), 1008–1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic geometry of an original heterojunction optical diode formed by the interface (normal to the Γ-Μ direction) between two PC slabs (denoted as PC1 and PC2) with different hole radii (r1 and r2, respectively). (b) Simulated transmission spectra of the diode in the forward direction (the black line) and the backward direction (the red line). An input and output ridge waveguide has been used in the 3D-FDTD calculation. (c),(d) Calculated TE-like mode Ey field distribution at 0.2793 (a/λ) in the forward and backward direction, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated modal dispersion curve for PC1 (r = 0.24a). (b) Calculated modal dispersion curve for PC2 (r = 0.36a), in which the black line is the air light cone. The red curve denotes the first even mode, while the green curve denotes the second odd mode. The blue dashed line denotes the bottom frequency of the Γ-Χ directional odd mode [0.2633 (a/λ)] of PC1 and the orange dashed line denotes the top frequency of the Γ-Μ directional even mode of PC2 [0.3087 (a/λ)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic geometry of the revised diode structure formed by two heterojunction interfaces (normal to two Γ-Μ directions) between two PC slabs. (b) Simulated transmission spectra of the revised diode structure in the forward direction (the black line) and the backward direction (the red line). (c),(d) Calculated TE-like mode Ey field distribution at 0.2834 (a/λ) in the forward and backward direction, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron microscope images of the original optical diode structures. (b) Theoretical [left, part of Fig. 1(b)] and experimental (right) transmission spectra of the original diode structure. (c) Scanning electron microscope images of the revised optical diode structures. (d) Theoretical [left, part of Fig. 3(b)] and experimental (right) transmission spectra of the revised diode structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scanning electron microscope images of the optimized optical diode system. (b) Theoretical (left) and experimental (right) transmission spectra of the optimized diode structure.

Metrics