Abstract

We present high performance silicon photonic circuits (PICs) defined for off-chip or on-chip photonic interconnects, where PN depletion Mach-Zehnder modulators and evanescent-coupled waveguide Ge-on-Si photodetectors were monolithically integrated on an SOI wafer with CMOS-compatible process. The fabricated silicon PICoff-chip for off-chip optical interconnects showed operation up to 30 Gb/s. Under differential drive of low-voltage 1.2 Vpp, the integrated 1 mm-phase-shifter modulator in the PICoff-chip demonstrated an extinction ratio (ER) of 10.5dB for 12.5 Gb/s, an ER of 9.1dB for 20 Gb/s, and an ER of 7.2 dB for 30 Gb/s operation, without adoption of travelling-wave electrodes. The device showed the modulation efficiency of VπLπ ~1.59 Vcm, and the phase-shifter loss of 3.2 dB/mm for maximum optical transmission. The Ge photodetector, which allows simpler integration process based on reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition exhibited operation over 30 Gb/s with a low dark current of 700 nA at −1V. The fabricated silicon PICintra-chip for on-chip (intra-chip) photonic interconnects, where the monolithically integrated modulator and Ge photodetector were connected by a silicon waveguide on the same chip, showed on-chip data transmissions up to 20 Gb/s, indicating potential application in future silicon on-chip optical network. We also report the performance of the hybrid silicon electronic-photonic IC (EPIC), where a PICintra-chip chip and 0.13μm CMOS interface IC chips were hybrid-integrated.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (5)

2010 (7)

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High- sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on- Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~ 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (9)

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE. Micro. 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Dayringer, M.

Doerr, C.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

Fong, J.

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
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Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gainsley, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ginsburg, E.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
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Green, W. M.

Grosse, P.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE. Micro. 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
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Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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Ho, R.

Hong, C. Y.

Hu, Y.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K.

Joo, J.

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High- sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on- Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~ 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
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D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
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Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Kärtner, F. X.

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, I.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, S.

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High- sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on- Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~ 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
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N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
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Kung, C.-C.

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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Lecunff, Y.

Lentine, A.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Liu, H. D.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

Milesi, F.

Miller, D.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
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D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moghadam, H. F.

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Park, J. W.

Park, J.-W.

Park, M.

Patil, D.

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Pinguet, T.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Sekaric, L.

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, J.

Shubin, I.

Song, J. F.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suh, D.

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

Trotter, D.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, M.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wöhl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yin, T.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, J.-B.

Young, R.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zadka, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Ziebell, M.

Zortman, W.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40Gbit/s silicon optical modulator high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. Okyay, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Rasras, D. Gill, M. Earnshaw, C. Doerr, J. Weiner, C. Bolle, and Y. Chen, “CMOS silicon receiver integrated with Ge detector and reconfigurable optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz high-responsivity Ge photodetectors grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Micro. (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE. Micro. 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).

Opt. Express (15)

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High- sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on- Si photoreceiver operating at λ ~ 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E (1)

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

K. Preston, L. Chen, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale devices,” 6th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, WA2, 1–3 (2009).

A. Narasimha, S. Abdaila, C. Bradbury, A. Clark, J. Clymore, J. Coyne, A. Dahl, S. Gloeckner, A. Gruenberg, D. Guckenberger, S. Gutierrez, M. Harrison, D. Kucharski, K. Leap, R. LeBlanc, V. Liang, M. Mack, D. Martinez, G. Masini, A. Mekis, R. Menigoz, C. Ogden, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, J. Rodriguez, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, T. Sleboda, D. Song, V. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, W. Xu, K. Vokoyama, and P. DobbeIaere, “An ultra low power CMOS photonics technology platform for H/S optoelectronic transceivers at less than $1 per Gbps,” in Proc. OFC 2010, San Diego, USA (2010).

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “Progress in high-responsivity vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetecor operating at λ ~1.55 μm,” in Proc. OFC 2011, Los Angeles, USA (2011).

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, 362–364 (2008).

K. Park, B. Yoo, M. Hwang, H. Chi, H. Kim, J. Park, G. Kim, and D. Jeong, “A 10-Gb/s optical receiver front-end with 5-mW transimpedance amplifier,” IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, Beijing, 3–5 (2010).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top views of microscopy images of the fabricated monolithically-integrated silicon photonic IC (PIC) chips for (a) off-chip optical interconnect (PICoff-chip) and (b) on-chip optical interconnect (PICintra-chip). The TEM, SEM cross sectional images and schematic diagrams of (c) monolithically integrated silicon MZ modulator phase shifter, and (d) integrated Ge photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission spectra of the integrated asymmetric MZ modulator (MZM) with 1-mm-long phase shifter at biases from 0V to −9V, and (b) the voltage-induced phase shifts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency response of the MZ modulator shows the −3 dB bandwidth (f-3dB) of 15.0 GHz at −5 VDC bias and 14.3 GHz at −2 VDC bias for the wavelength of 1539.5nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Low-voltage driving 1.2Vpp of the integrated MZ modulator with 1-mm-long phase shifter at 12.5 Gb/s operation shows ER~10.5 dB at −3VDC for λ~1541.2nm..

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

High-speed operations of an integrated 1 mm-phase-shifter MZM driven in differential mode of 1.2 Vpp for 20Gb/s and 30Gb/s modulations for λ~1541.2 nm in the PICoff-chip. Measured ERs are 9.1 dB at −3VDC for 20Gb/s modulation, and 7.2 dB at −4 VDC for 30Gb/s modulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

On-wafer measurements of a monolithic-integrated 1 mm-phase-shifter MZM driven in differential mode of 2.5 Vpp for 20 Gb/s and 30 Gb/s operation, show ~12.6dB ER at 20Gb/s, ~9.4dB ER at 30Gb/s, with −5VDC bias in the PICoff-chip.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) On-wafer measurement for the frequency response of integrated 6 × 23μm2 Ge-PIN waveguide photodetector, which shows −3dB bandwidth (f-3dB) greater than 27 GHz at −3V. (b) The eye-diagram measured at (b) 20 Gb/s and (c) 30 Gb/s operations at −3V bias.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The detected photocurrent curves for the optical transmission spectra of a integrated modulator by the monolithically integrated PD in the PICintra-chip. The modulator is biased from 0V to −9V, and the PD is biased −3V.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

On-wafer measurements of optical eye-diagrams for 12.5Gb/s, 15 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s on-chip optical interconnect signals in the monolithic integrated PICintra-chip, with 2.5Vpp at the wavelength λ = 1542.7 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Silicon EPIC on a test PCB, where a silicon PICintra-chip chip is hybrid-integrated with 0.13μm CMOS VLSI chips. Top chip is a CMOS modulator-driver IC, the middle chip is a silicon PICintra-chip chip, and the bottom chip is a TIA-LA CMOS IC chip. Test setup for hybrid silicon EPIC characterization is shown in the inset. (b) The measured electrical eye of CMOS ICs at 7 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s operations. (c) Eye diagrams of the hybrid silicon EPIC at 5 Gbps, 8 Gbps, and 10 Gbps measured with 1.3 Vpp PRBS signal. Here, on-chip EPIC characteristics are limited by the 0.13μm CMOS interface circuits.

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