Abstract

Energy transfer upconversion induced thermal effects are mainly responsible for the low efficiency of laser diode pumped Er:YAG lasers. The current work adopts Er:YAG rods with 0.25% Er3+ doping concentration, instead of the commonly used rods with 0.5% Er3+ doping concentration. Results show that the thermal effect is greatly alleviated. A continuous-wave output of 10.2 W is obtained using 31 W incident pump power. Optical–optical efficiency is approximately 33%. Slope efficiency, with respect to the absorbed pump power, is as high as 83%, which is close to the quantum efficiency. In a Q-switched operation, 7 mJ pulses with a pulse width of ~65 ns are obtained at 100 Hz PRF.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. Y. Liu, J. Liu, and W. Chen, “Eye-safe, single-frequency pulsed all-fiber laser for Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(9), 090604–090607 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gao, S. Zhu, W. Zhao, Z. Cao, and Z. Yang, “Eye-safe, high-energy, single-mode all-fiber laser with widely tunable repetition rate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7(7), 611–613 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Kudryashov and A. Katsnelson, “Q-switch resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781D (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Kudryashov, A. Katsnelson, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Room temperature power scalability of the diode-pumped Er:YAG eye-safe laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CWA2.
  12. I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Bigotta and M. Eichhorn, “Q-switched resonantly diode-pumped Er3+:YAG laser with fiberlike geometry,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2970–2972 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. W. Chen, M. Birnbaum, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Multiwatt continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG lasers at 1645 nm: performance issues,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1501–1503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. P. Barnes, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Eichhorn, “Numerical modeling of diode-end-pumped high-power Er3+:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 803–810 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Chen, M. Birnbaum, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Multiwatt continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG lasers at 1645 nm: performance issues,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1501–1503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gao, S. Zhu, W. Zhao, Z. Cao, and Z. Yang, “Eye-safe, high-energy, single-mode all-fiber laser with widely tunable repetition rate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7(7), 611–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kudryashov and A. Katsnelson, “Q-switch resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781D (2009).

2008

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichhorn, “Numerical modeling of diode-end-pumped high-power Er3+:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 803–810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. P. Barnes, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1992

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, S. M.

Belden, P. M.

Bigotta, S.

Birnbaum, M.

Budni, P. A.

Cao, Z.

Chang, N. W. H.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. W.

Chen, W.

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dubinskii, M.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, M.

S. Bigotta and M. Eichhorn, “Q-switched resonantly diode-pumped Er3+:YAG laser with fiberlike geometry,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2970–2972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichhorn, “Numerical modeling of diode-end-pumped high-power Er3+:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 803–810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

Garbuzov, D.

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hosken, D. J.

Katsnelson, A.

I. Kudryashov and A. Katsnelson, “Q-switch resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781D (2009).

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klotz, M. J.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, I.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kudryashov and A. Katsnelson, “Q-switch resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781D (2009).

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Mackenzie, J. I.

Munch, J.

Ottaway, D. J.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

Reeder, R. A.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rose, T. S.

Sahu, J. K.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Y.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simakov, N.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Snell, K. J.

Spariosu, K.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veitch, P. J.

Yang, Z.

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Zhu, S.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichhorn, “Numerical modeling of diode-end-pumped high-power Er3+:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 803–810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

I. Kudryashov and A. Katsnelson, “Q-switch resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781D (2009).

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Kudryashov, A. Katsnelson, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Room temperature power scalability of the diode-pumped Er:YAG eye-safe laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CWA2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power versus absorbed power in CW operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse energy (a) and pulse width (b) versus PRF in Q-switched operation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of output power between CW and Q-switched operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stimulated upper laser level lifetime versus absorbed pump power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of CW operation among previous works

Equations (1)

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η s =τ/ τ Q [1exp( τ Q /τ )]

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