Abstract

Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) are experimentally investigated in order to suggest a novel PCF for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. From our investigation, we select the optimum PCF design and demonstrate a tailored spectrum with power concentrated around the relevant wavelengths for lipid imaging (648 nm and 1027 nm). This new PCF is characterized by varying the fiber length, the average power, and the pulse width of the fs pump pulses. It was found that the selected PCF design gave a significantly improved spectral distribution compared to an existing PCF for CARS microscopy. Furthermore, the PCF is designed in a twofold symmetric structure allowing for polarization maintaining propagation. Finally, the pulse propagation is investigated numerically showing good agreement with the measured spectrum. From the numerical analysis, the nonlinear effects responsible for the spectral broadening are explained to be soliton fission processes, dispersive waves, and stimulated Raman scattering.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, C. W. Freudiger, J. H. Lee, B. G. Saar, X. S. Xie, and C. Xu, “Synchronized time-lens source for coherent Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24019–24024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1123–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

2000 (2)

1996 (2)

1974 (1)

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P. E.

Andersen, T.

Arriaga, J.

Atkin, D. M.

Bang, O.

Barry, N. P.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Begley, R. F.

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A. O.

Blais, D. R.

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Book, L. D.

Botten, L. C.

Broeng, J.

Byer, R. L.

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

Chitnis, T.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

Ding, S.-Y.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falk, P.

Fermann, M. E.

Freudiger, C. W.

Friedrich, M.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M. H.

Fu, L.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R. K.

Hansen, K.

Hansen, K. P.

Hartl, I.

Harvey, A. B.

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hewko, M. D.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Himmel, M.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Imitola, J.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

Kennedy, D. C.

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoury, S. J.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, A. C. T.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Kohlenberg, E. K.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kratzer, A.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristiansen, R.

Larsen, J.

Larsen, J. J.

Lee, J. H.

Levi, M.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lim, R. S.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-S.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Lyn, R. K.

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

Mantulin, W. W.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Miyazaki, M.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki-Anzai, S.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffatt, D. J.

Mølmer, K.

Mostaco-Guidolin, L. B.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Paulsen, H.

Paulsen, H. N.

Pegoraro, A. F.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pezacki, J. P.

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Rasmussen, S.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridsdale, A.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouleau, Y.

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Saar, B.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

Sagan, S. M.

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schattka, B.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiomi, M.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidman, R. L.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. S. D.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Stolow, A.

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thøgersen, J.

Thomas, B. K.

Thrane, L.

Tonary, A. M.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, K.

Washburn, B. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, C. W. Freudiger, J. H. Lee, B. G. Saar, X. S. Xie, and C. Xu, “Synchronized time-lens source for coherent Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24019–24024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Zeng, Y.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 269–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Begley, A. B. Harvey, and R. L. Byer, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(7), 387–390 (1974).
[CrossRef]

BioEnergy Res. (1)

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res. 3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ChemBioChem (1)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, “Intracellular imaging of HCV RNA and cellular lipids by using simultaneous two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies,” ChemBioChem 7(12), 1895–1897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, and S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. T. Ko, A. Ridsdale, M. S. D. Smith, L. B. Mostaco-Guidolin, M. D. Hewko, A. F. Pegoraro, E. K. Kohlenberg, B. Schattka, M. Shiomi, A. Stolow, and M. G. Sowa, “Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (1)

R. S. Lim, A. Kratzer, N. P. Barry, S. Miyazaki-Anzai, M. Miyazaki, W. W. Mantulin, M. Levi, E. O. Potma, and B. J. Tromberg, “Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice,” J. Lipid Res. 51(7), 1729–1737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

P. Falk, M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, L. Thrane, P. E. Andersen, A. O. Bjarklev, K. P. Hansen, and J. Broeng, “Broadband light generation at approximately 1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 621–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1660–1662 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1123–1125 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 796–798 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virology (1)

R. K. Lyn, D. C. Kennedy, S. M. Sagan, D. R. Blais, Y. Rouleau, A. F. Pegoraro, X. S. Xie, A. Stolow, and J. P. Pezacki, “Direct imaging of the disruption of hepatitis C virus replication complexes by inhibitors of lipid metabolism,” Virology 394(1), 130–142 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academics Press, 2001).

N. K. T. Photonics, femtoWHITE CARS: http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/FWCARS-090612.pdf .

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Science, 1991).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope image of PCF cross section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion profiles of the PCFs calculated from the parameters given in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ti:Sapphire fs laser (795 nm center wavelength); FemtoSource Compact from FEMTOLASERS; Neutral density filter; MOSAIC dispersion compensator; λ/2-plate; 40X / NA 0.65 microscope objective; 3d translation stage; Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF); NA 0.68, f −3.1 collimating lense; Fiber Optical Integrating Sphere (FOIS); 600 µm MultiMode (MM) coupling fiber; Optical Spectrum Analyser (OSA).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra measured from (a) PCF 1 and PCF 2, (b) PCF 3 and PCF 4, (c) PCF 5 and PCF 6. All spectra are measured with a PCF length from 35 cm to 40 cm and with a coupled average power of approximately 35 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra measured with average power varied from 0.60 mW to 8.0 mW (left) and 11 mW to 22 mW (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra measured with the input pulse duration of 11 fs and 29.0 fs (left), and 89 fs and 107 fs (right). The dotted lines indicates the relevant CARS wavelengths around 648 nm ± 15 nm and 1027 nm ± 20 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra measured from PCF 5 when the length is varied from 12 cm to 20 cm (left) and 30 cm to 50 cm (right). The dotted lines indicates the relevant CARS wavelengths around 648 nm ± 15 nm and 1027 nm ± 20 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Numerical calculation of an 11 fs pulse propagating in PCF 5, where red indicates high intensity (left), and the simulated spectrum together with measured spectrum after 28 cm of propagation in PCF 5 (right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated spectra with the pump wavelength centered close to the first ZDW (left) and at 840 nm and 870 nm representing pump wavelengths in the middle of the ADR and close to the second ZDW, respectively (right).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectra measured from PCF 5 (blue curve) and ‘femtoWHITE CARS’ (green curve). Both spectra are measured with 35 mW of coupled average power, and are normalized to this.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural parameters of the six PCFs.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Conversion efficiencies to relevant wavelengths

Metrics