Abstract

We demonstrated extraordinary THz transmission through ring apertures on a metal film. Transmission of 60% was obtained with an aperture-to-area ratio of only 1.4%. We show that the high transmission can be suppressed by over 18 dB with a thin layer of free carriers in the silicon substrate underneath the metal film. This result suggests that CMOS-compatible terahertz modulators can be built by controlling the carrier density near the aperture.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
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2011 (1)

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Xiao, W. Jinbo, Y. Sasagawa, F. Miyamaru, M. Y. Zhang, M. W. Takeda, C. Y. Qiu, W. J. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Resonant terahertz transmissions through metal hole array on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18558–18564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2000 (2)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

Azad, A. K.

Bahk, Y. M.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, S.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernien, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Chan, C.-F.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choe, J. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hecker, N. E.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hung, T.-H.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jastrow, C.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jinbo, W.

Kang, J. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. T.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, S. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurner, T.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, J.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-C.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Libon, I. H.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lockyear, M. J.

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Manipatruni, S.

Martin-Moreno, L.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

Moreno, E.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munter, K.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

O’Hara, J. F.

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. R.

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poujet, Y.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. Y.

Qu, D.

Salvi, J.

Sasagawa, Y.

Schmidt, B.

Seo, M.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Sheng, P.

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suwal, O. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M. W.

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, H. Lu, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. C. Gossard, S. A. Trugman, J. F. O’Hara, and A. J. Taylor, “Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7641–7648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trugman, S. A.

Tzuang, D.-C.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wen, W. J.

Wu, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X. A.

Xu, Q.

Ye, Y.-H.

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. Y.

Zhang, W.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Chang, D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-T. Wu, C.-F. Chan, Y.-H. Ye, T.-H. Hung, Y.-F. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Surface plasmon on aluminum concentric rings arranged in a long-range periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, and M. Koch, “Audio signal transmission over THz communication channel using semiconductor modulator,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jastrow, K. Munter, R. Piesiewicz, T. Kurner, M. Koch, and T. Kleine-Ostmann, “300 GHz transmission system,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Bahk, H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Anomalous band formation in arrays of terahertz nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(1), 013902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

J. O. Smith, Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with Audio Applications, (W3K Publishing, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic design of the proposed modulator. The central metal pads inside the apertures are connected by metal wire bridges to form one electrode. The continuous metal film outside of the apertures is used as another electrode. (b) Cross-sectional view of the ring aperture with a p-i-n junction embedded in the silicon substrate underneath. (c) Top-view of the E-field distribution of the TE11 mode in the ring. (d) side-view of the E-field intensity distribution when a plane waves passes through the ring aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated power transmission spectra of 2D arrays of circular and square ring apertures in a gold film on an intrinsic silicon wafer. Apertures width w = 1 µm and the period is p = 150 µ m. r: radius of a circular aperture, l: the side length of a square aperture. The black solid line close to the bottom shows the transmission when the silicon underneath the aperture has carrier density of 3 × 1017 cm−3. (b) Simulated transmission spectra of a ring aperture array with a 1-µm-wide gold line placed 1-µm above the metal film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) An SEM picture of fabricated circular ring array with w = 1μm, p = 150 μm, r = 50 μm. (b) An SEM picture of fabricated square ring array with w = 1μm, p = 150 μm, l = 79 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured time domain transmitted field amplitude signals of circular ring apertures with r = 50 µm on a high-resistivity silicon substrate (red) and that of a bare high-resistivity silicon substrate (blue). (b) Measured (solid) and simulated (dashed) power transmission spectra of the ring apertures, which is normalized to that of the bare silicon substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured power transmission spectra of 2D circular and squre ring aperture arrays. All the apertures have width of w = 1 µm and the period of all the arrays is p = 150um. r is the radius of a circular aperture, and l the side length of a square aperture. (b), (c) Polarization dependency: measured power transmission spectra of circular (b) and square (c) ring aperture arrays for different polarization angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Carrier density distribution in silicon substrate with ion implantation of Boron atoms. (b) Measured power transmission spectra of different aperture with w = 1 µm and p = 150um on high-resistivity wafer (solid) and on high-conductivity wafer (dashed).

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