Abstract

Broad-bandwidth THz-domain electro-magnetic pulses are typically diagnosed through temporal electro-optic (EO) cross-correlation with an optical probe pulse. Single-shot time-domain measurements of the THz waveform involve complex setups at a bandwidth coverage limited by the probe bandwidth. Here we present an EO-based diagnostic directly in the spectral domain, relying on THz-induced optical sidebands on a narrow-bandwidth optical probe. Experiments are conducted with a 0.11-THz-bandwidth optical probe and a broadband source (0–8 THz detection bandwidth) rich in spectral features. The validity of the sideband diagnostic concept, its spectral resolution, sideband amplitude, and the effects of probe timing are studied. For probe pulses longer than the THz pulse, the sideband technique proves an accurate single-shot spectral diagnostic, with advantages in setup simplicity and bandwidth coverage no longer limited by the laser bandwidth.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: Optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

2010

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2004

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: Optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Izdebski, W. Kucharczyk, and R. E. Raab, “On relationships between electro-optic coefficients for impermeability and nonlinear electric susceptibilities,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 421–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, L.

Berden, G.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

Bussmann, M.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collier, J. L.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debus, A. D.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Divall, E. J.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertel, K.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

Faure, J.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: Optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foster, P. S.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallacher, J. G.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallot, G.

Geddes, C. G. R.

Gillespie, W. A.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Heathcote, R.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

Hidding, B.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooker, C. J.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hörlein, R.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izdebski, M.

M. Izdebski, W. Kucharczyk, and R. E. Raab, “On relationships between electro-optic coefficients for impermeability and nonlinear electric susceptibilities,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 421–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Kaindl, R. A.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: Optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, M. C.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karsch, S.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiselev, S.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoesel, E.

Kucharczyk, W.

M. Izdebski, W. Kucharczyk, and R. E. Raab, “On relationships between electro-optic coefficients for impermeability and nonlinear electric susceptibilities,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 421–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langley, A. J.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leemans, W. P.

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLeod, A. M.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, Zs.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matlis, N. H.

Murphy, C. D.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

Neely, D.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, P. J.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plateau, G. R.

Raab, R. E.

M. Izdebski, W. Kucharczyk, and R. E. Raab, “On relationships between electro-optic coefficients for impermeability and nonlinear electric susceptibilities,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 421–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Redlich, B.

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheu, R.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, K.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schramm, U.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, J.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. B.

Sell, A.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

Smith, J. M.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tóth, C.

van der Meer, A. F. G.

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tilborg, J.

Veisz, L.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weling, A. S.

Wen, H.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, K.

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Izdebski, W. Kucharczyk, and R. E. Raab, “On relationships between electro-optic coefficients for impermeability and nonlinear electric susceptibilities,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 421–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: Optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Berden, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, B. Redlich, and A. F. G. van der Meer, “Electro-optic technique with improved time resolution for real-time, nondestructive, single-shot measurements of femtosecond electron bunch profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Debus, M. Bussmann, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, C. D. Murphy, Zs. Major, R. Hörlein, L. Veisz, K. Schmid, J. Schreiber, K. Witte, S. P. Jamison, J. G. Gallacher, D. A. Jaroszynski, M. C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, S. Kiselev, R. Heathcote, P. S. Foster, D. Neely, E. J. Divall, C. J. Hooker, J. M. Smith, K. Ertel, A. J. Langley, P. Norreys, J. L. Collier, and S. Karsch, “Electron bunch length measurements from laser-accelerated electrons using single-shot THz time-domain interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Through interaction of a THz pulse and a narrow-bandwidth optical probe pulse (f0=375 THz) in an EO crystal, the THz pulse spectrum appears in the optical domain as spectral sidebands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the THz-induced optical sideband diagnostic. A laser beam is split by a beamsplitter into a pump arm for THz generation and a probe arm for EO detection. The THz pulse is focused by a Silicon lens through a pellicle onto an EO crystal. The probe arm is reflected off a grating-lens-slit combination to produce a 0.11-THz-bandwidth probe pulse onto the EO crystal, after which an imaging spectrometer records the EO-modulated optical spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrometer image obtained with 200-μm-thick ZnTe as the EO crystal (spectral range of 0–3.5 THz). (b) Lineouts of the spectral images for ZnTe (red curve) and GaP (blue curve, multiplied by 5). The spectral range of 200-μm-thick GaP is 0–8 THz. The spectral intensity was normalized to E 0 2. The spectral features, a result from absorption in the plasma and in air-based water vapor, line up for both measurements and were found to be as sharp as 0.15 THz (FWHM). The black curve in (b) shows the air-based water absorption coefficient, where the frequencies of strongest absorption line up with the minima in the retrieved THz spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Each horizontal line in (a) for ZnTe, or (b) for GaP, represents a sideband spectrum for a given delay between the probe and THz pulse. By scanning the probe delay and stacking the sideband spectra, the two-dimensional images are formed. Due to strong THz absorption and dispersion at specific spectral bands (such as 2.7, 3.9 and 6.1 THz), frequency-dependent THz pulse lengthening yields a dependency of the sideband amplitude on probe delay as shown in (c). Those spectral components not affected by absorption (such as 2.0, 3.4 and 4.8 THz) are optimized around the same delay (≃ 7 ps), where a Gaussian fit yields a probe duration τ = 2.9 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Field waveform of the THz pulse (in units of kV/cm), retrieved with a conventional scanning 2D-EOS configuration (with ZnTe). One can observe a short THz pulse followed by long-lasting field oscillations. (b) Comparison of the retrieved spectrum from scanning EOS to the sideband technique yields quantitative agreement, with the sharp spectral features lining up.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Example of time domain field envelope for the probe field Eenv,opt(t) = exp[−t2/τ2] (green curve) and the THz field ETHz(t) at two different delays τ1 = 0 ps (blue curve) and τ2=1 ps (red curve). (b) The normalized optical sideband spectra |Esum(f)/E0| for the two different delays, with the black curves representing the input THz pulse spectrum shifted by f0 = 375 THz. Note that the THz pulse duration is much shorter than the probe pulse, and hence the sideband spectra match the input THz pulse spectrum. For the examples in (c), with τ1 = −0.5 ps and τ2=0.5 ps, the same THz pulse spectrum is now chirped to longer duration, with the sideband spectra plotted in (d). One can see that the sidebands are now a function of delay and no longer match the input THz spectrum.

Equations (2)

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E sum ( f ) = 2 π f L c n opt ϕ 0 d ν T cr ( ν ) E THz ( ν ) E opt ( f ν ) ,
| E sum ( f 0 ± ν ) | = 2 π ( f 0 ± ν ) L c n opt E 0 σ f π | T cr ( ν ) E THz ( ν ) | .

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