Abstract

We present a numerical model of a pulsed, diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser amplifier for the generation of high energy ns-pulses. This model is used to explore how optical-to-optical efficiency depends on factors such as pump duration, pump spectrum, pump intensity, doping concentration, and operating temperature. We put special emphasis on finding ways to achieve high efficiency within the practical limitations imposed by real-world laser systems, such as limited pump brightness and limited damage fluence. We show that a particularly advantageous way of improving efficiency within those constraints is operation at cryogenic temperature. Based on the numerical findings we present a concept for a scalable amplifier based on an end-pumped, cryogenic, gas-cooled multi-slab architecture.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

J. Körner, J. Hein, M. Kahle, H. Liebetrau, M. Lenski, M. Kaluza, M. Loeser, and M. Siebold, “Temperature dependent measurement of absorption and emission cross sections for various Yb3+ doped laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 808003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Mason, K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, P. J. Phillips, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Optimised design for a 1 kJ diode-pumped solid-state laser system,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 80801X (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Erlandson, S. M. Aceves, A. J. Bayramian, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. D. Boley, J. A. Caird, R. J. Deri, A. M. Dunne, D. L. Flowers, M. A. Henesian, K. R. Manes, E. I. Moses, S. I. Rana, K. I. Schaffers, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, and S. J. Telford, “Comparison of Nd:phosphate glass, Yb:YAG and Yb:S-FAP laser beamlines for laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1341–1352 (2011) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1341
[CrossRef]

2010

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 63–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Albach, M. Arzakantsyan, G. Bourdet, J.-C. Chanteloup, P. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Current status of the LUCIA laser system,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.  244, 032015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

K. Ertel, C. Hooker, S. J. Hawkes, B. T. Parry, and J. L. Collier, “ASE suppression in a high energy titanium sapphire amplifier,” Opt. Express 16, 8039–8049 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8039 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  100, 105006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys.  4, 447–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bayramian, P. Armstrong, E. Ault, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, J. Caird, R. Campbell, B. Chai, J. Dawson, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, Z. Liao, T. Ladran, J. Menapace, B. Molander, S. Payne, N. Peterson, M. Randles, K. Schaffers, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, and E. Utterback, “The Mercury project: a high average power, gas-cooled laser for inertial fusion energy development,” Fusion Sci. Technol.  52, 383–387 (2007).

G. Bourdet and O. Casagrande, “Effect of diode wavelength broadening in a diode end-pumped solid-state amplifier,” Appl. Opt.  46, 2709–2716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  13, 598–609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Yagi, J. F. Bisson, K. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, “Y3Al5O12 ceramic absorbers for the suppression of parasitic oscillation in high-power Nd:YAG lasers,” J. Lumin.  121, 88–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys.  2, 2–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys.  98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. C. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and LF cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Nakai and K. Mima, “Laser driven inertial fusion energy: present and prospective,” Rep. Prog. Phys.  67, 321–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng.  43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bodefeld, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer, “Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

T. Kasamatsu, H. Sekita, and Y. Kuwano, “Temperature dependence and optimization of 970-nm diode-pumped Yb:YAG and Yb:LuAG lasers,” Appl. Opt.  38, 5149–5153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Andre, “The French megajoule laser project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des.  44, 43–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. B. Sutton and G. F. Albrecht, “Thermal management in inertial fusion energy slab amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 272–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Fan, “Optimizing the efficiency and stored energy in quasi-three-level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  28, 2692 –2697 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. Lacovara, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “Room-temperature diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1089–1091 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. Bogomolova, D. Vylegzhanin, and A. Kaminskii, “Spectral and lasing investigations of garnets with Yb3+ ions,” Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 440–446 (1975).

1972

J. B. Trenholme, “Fluorescence amplification and parasitic oscillation limitations in disc lasers,” Naval Research Laboratory Memorandum Rep. 2480, 1972.

Aceves, S. M.

Aggarwal, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys.  98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lacovara, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “Room-temperature diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1089–1091 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albach, D.

D. Albach, M. Arzakantsyan, G. Bourdet, J.-C. Chanteloup, P. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Current status of the LUCIA laser system,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.  244, 032015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Albach, J.-C. Chanteloup, and G. Le Touzé, “Influence of ASE on the gain distribution in large size, high gain Yb3+:YAG slabs,” Opt. Express 17, 3792–3801 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3792 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, G. F.

S. B. Sutton and G. F. Albrecht, “Thermal management in inertial fusion energy slab amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2633, 272–281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, K. L.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allmon, R. W.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alviso, K. F.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amthor, K.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andre, M.

M. Andre, “The French megajoule laser project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des.  44, 43–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, P.

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P. D. Mason, K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, P. J. Phillips, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Optimised design for a 1 kJ diode-pumped solid-state laser system,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 80801X (2011).
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Ehrt, D.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bodefeld, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer, “Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
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A. Bayramian, P. Armstrong, E. Ault, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, J. Caird, R. Campbell, B. Chai, J. Dawson, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, Z. Liao, T. Ladran, J. Menapace, B. Molander, S. Payne, N. Peterson, M. Randles, K. Schaffers, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, and E. Utterback, “The Mercury project: a high average power, gas-cooled laser for inertial fusion energy development,” Fusion Sci. Technol.  52, 383–387 (2007).

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Ertel, K.

P. D. Mason, K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, P. J. Phillips, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Optimised design for a 1 kJ diode-pumped solid-state laser system,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 80801X (2011).
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J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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M. Siebold, M. Loeser, U. Schramm, J. Koerner, M. Wolf, M. Hellwing, J. Hein, and K. Ertel, “High-efficiency, room-temperature nanosecond Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 17, 19887–19893 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19887 .
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K. Ertel, C. Hooker, S. J. Hawkes, B. T. Parry, and J. L. Collier, “ASE suppression in a high energy titanium sapphire amplifier,” Opt. Express 16, 8039–8049 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8039 .
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K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. D. Mason, J. Phillips, and J. Collier, “Performance Modelling of a 1 kJ DPSSL System,” in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HThE3.

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H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
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V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys.  4, 447–453 (2008).
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Fei, Y.

A. Bayramian, P. Armstrong, E. Ault, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, J. Caird, R. Campbell, B. Chai, J. Dawson, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, Z. Liao, T. Ladran, J. Menapace, B. Molander, S. Payne, N. Peterson, M. Randles, K. Schaffers, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, and E. Utterback, “The Mercury project: a high average power, gas-cooled laser for inertial fusion energy development,” Fusion Sci. Technol.  52, 383–387 (2007).

Fell, B.

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Fochs, S. N.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
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C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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A. Bayramian, P. Armstrong, E. Ault, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, J. Caird, R. Campbell, B. Chai, J. Dawson, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, Z. Liao, T. Ladran, J. Menapace, B. Molander, S. Payne, N. Peterson, M. Randles, K. Schaffers, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, and E. Utterback, “The Mercury project: a high average power, gas-cooled laser for inertial fusion energy development,” Fusion Sci. Technol.  52, 383–387 (2007).

Gan, F.

Gauduel, Y. A.

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys.  4, 447–453 (2008).
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J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
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S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  100, 105006 (2008).
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Gordienko, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
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Hancock, S.

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Hawkes, S.

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Hawkes, S. J.

Heathcote, R.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  100, 105006 (2008).
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Hebling, J.

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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Hein, J.

J. Körner, J. Hein, M. Kahle, H. Liebetrau, M. Lenski, M. Kaluza, M. Loeser, and M. Siebold, “Temperature dependent measurement of absorption and emission cross sections for various Yb3+ doped laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 808003 (2011).
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J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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M. Siebold, M. Loeser, U. Schramm, J. Koerner, M. Wolf, M. Hellwing, J. Hein, and K. Ertel, “High-efficiency, room-temperature nanosecond Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 17, 19887–19893 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19887 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bodefeld, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer, “Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
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Hellwing, M.

M. Siebold, M. Loeser, U. Schramm, J. Koerner, M. Wolf, M. Hellwing, J. Hein, and K. Ertel, “High-efficiency, room-temperature nanosecond Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 17, 19887–19893 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19887 .
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J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bodefeld, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer, “Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
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Henesian, M. A.

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

P. D. Mason, K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, P. J. Phillips, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Optimised design for a 1 kJ diode-pumped solid-state laser system,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 80801X (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ertel, S. Banerjee, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. D. Mason, J. Phillips, and J. Collier, “Performance Modelling of a 1 kJ DPSSL System,” in High Intensity Lasers and High Field Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper HThE3.

Hollander, P.

D. Albach, M. Arzakantsyan, G. Bourdet, J.-C. Chanteloup, P. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Current status of the LUCIA laser system,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.  244, 032015 (2010).
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C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Hooker, C.

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ertel, C. Hooker, S. J. Hawkes, B. T. Parry, and J. L. Collier, “ASE suppression in a high energy titanium sapphire amplifier,” Opt. Express 16, 8039–8049 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8039 .
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Hurd, R. L.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Jackel, O.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439, 445–448 (2006).
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Kahle, M.

J. Körner, J. Hein, M. Kahle, H. Liebetrau, M. Lenski, M. Kaluza, M. Loeser, and M. Siebold, “Temperature dependent measurement of absorption and emission cross sections for various Yb3+ doped laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 808003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, M.

J. Körner, J. Hein, M. Kahle, H. Liebetrau, M. Lenski, M. Kaluza, M. Loeser, and M. Siebold, “Temperature dependent measurement of absorption and emission cross sections for various Yb3+ doped laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 8080, 808003 (2011).
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Kaminskii, A.

G. Bogomolova, D. Vylegzhanin, and A. Kaminskii, “Spectral and lasing investigations of garnets with Yb3+ ions,” Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 440–446 (1975).

Karsch, S.

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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Kent, R.

A. Bayramian, P. Armstrong, E. Ault, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, J. Caird, R. Campbell, B. Chai, J. Dawson, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, Z. Liao, T. Ladran, J. Menapace, B. Molander, S. Payne, N. Peterson, M. Randles, K. Schaffers, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, and E. Utterback, “The Mercury project: a high average power, gas-cooled laser for inertial fusion energy development,” Fusion Sci. Technol.  52, 383–387 (2007).

Kidd, A.

C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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Kiselev, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneip, S.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  100, 105006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koerner, J.

Korn, G.

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
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C. Danson, P. Brummitt, R. Clarke, J. Collier, B. Fell, A. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. Lester, I. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. Neville, P. Norreys, D. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. Winstone, R. Wyatt, and B. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt - an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44, 239–246 (2004).
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S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  100, 105006 (2008).
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Osvay, K.

J.-P. Chambaret, O. Chekhlov, G. Cheriaux, J. Collier, R. Dabu, P. Dombi, A. M. Dunne, K. Ertel, P. Georges, J. Hebling, J. Hein, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. Hooker, S. Karsch, G. Korn, F. Krausz, C. L. Blanc, Z. Major, F. Mathieu, T. Metzger, G. Mourou, P. Nickles, K. Osvay, B. Rus, W. Sandner, G. Szabó, D. Ursescu, and K. Varjú, “Extreme Light Infrastructure: laser architecture and major challenges,” Proc. SPIE 7721, 77211D (2010).
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Parker, J. M.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
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Parks, C. W.

R. M. Yamamoto, J. M. Parker, K. L. Allen, R. W. Allmon, K. F. Alviso, C. P. J. Barty, B. S. Bhachu, C. D. Boley, A. K. Burnham, R. L. Combs, K. P. Cutter, S. N. Fochs, S. A. Gonzales, R. L. Hurd, K. N. LaFortune, W. J. Manning, M. A. McClelland, R. D. Merrill, L. Molina, C. W. Parks, P. H. Pax, A. S. Posey, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Roy, A. M. Rubenchik, T. F. Soules, and D. E. Webb, “Evolution of a solid state laser,” Proc. SPIE 6552, 655205 (2007).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Impact of fluorescence loss on stored energy and storage efficiency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Level scheme of Yb:YAG. UM, LM: upper and lower manifold; GS: ground state; LL and UL: lower and upper laser level; PL: pump level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump efficiency as function of columnar doping density. Shown are the results for the two scenarios (solid lines) and for pump intensities differing by ±5kWcm−2 from the scenario values (dotted lines). Also shown is the location of the optimum operating points for different pump intensities (diamonds) within this range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of upper state population β along amplifier optical axis. Shown are results for room temperature (red) and low temperature (blue) scenarios. Also shown are results for room temperature scenario with single-sided pumping (dashed line) and values for βmin (horizontal lines) at room temperature and at 175 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum pump efficiency as function of pump intensity for room temperature scenario (red) and low temperature scenario (blue).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectra for Yb:YAG at 175K (blue) and 300K (red). Shown for comparison is a Gaussian-shaped spectrum with 5nm FWHM (dotted line). From [23].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum pump efficiency (solid line) as function of pump spectral width for room temperature scenario (left) and low temperature scenario (right). Also shown is the optimum centre wavelength (dashed line) as function of pump spectral width.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in pump efficiency as function of pump centre wavelength (a) and of pump spectral width (b), for room temperature scenario (red) and low temperature scenario (blue). All other parameters were fixed and optimised for the scenarios listed in Table 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Panel (a): Pump efficiency for room temperature scenario as function of columnar doping density for 1, 2, and 4-pass pumping. Panel (b): Distribution of upper state population β along optical axis for room temperature scenario with 1, 2, and 4 pump passes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Isometric view (a) and side view (b) of the cryogenic gas cooled multi-slab amplifier concept. An individual amplifier slab is shown in (c).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Small-signal gain (solid lines) and maximum pump efficiency (dashed lines) as function of pump intensity for room temperature scenario (red), room temperature scenario with 2-pass pumping (green), and low temperature scenario (blue).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Doping concentration (upper panel) and gain coefficient (lower panel) for 10-slab amplifier with variable doping. Vertical dotted lines denote slab boundaries, horizontal dashed line denotes maximum allowed gain coefficient.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Model parameters for baseline scenarios.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Size-independent parameters for high energy amplifier design.

Equations (4)

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η f l = τ f l T P ( 1 exp ( T P τ f l ) ) ,
E s t = R P τ f l ( 1 exp ( T P τ f l ) ) .
f LL = exp ( E LL / kT ) / i exp ( E i / kT ) ,
N U t = ( 1 β ) N I P σ abs h ν P ,

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