Abstract

We propose a robust and dither-free technique using a delay line interferometer, a balanced detector and simple signal processing to adjust the amplitude of the driver signal of an optical phase modulator automatically for stabilizing the modulated phase of an optical carrier at any arbitrary value. The technique is analytically shown to be robust against practical device imperfections. A stable 45 degrees phase shift with deviation less than ± 0.8 degrees is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, and T. Kawanishi, “Rectangular QPSK for generation of optical eight-ary phase-shift keying,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18479–18485 (2011).
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  9. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 373–377 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, and B. Zhu, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 571–577 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, and T. Mizuochi, “A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator,” in Proceeding of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Torino, Italy, 2010), Paper Tu.3.A.6.
  14. M. Sotoodeh, Y. Beaulieu, J. Harley, and D. L. McGhan, “Modulator bias and optical power control of optical complex e-field modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2235–2248 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-Format-Free Bias Control Technique for MZ Modulator Based on Differential Phasor Monitor,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA033. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-JWA033
  16. W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Fukuchi, “Proposal and Feasibility Study of a 6-Level PSK Modulation Format Based System for 100-Gb/s Migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OMI6. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2008-OMI6

2011

2010

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, and P. Magill, “High-Spectral-Efficiency 114-Gb/s Transmission using PolMux-RZ-8PSK modulation format and single-ended digital coherent detection technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 146–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. M. Kahn and K. P. Ho, “Spectral efðciency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 259–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beaulieu, Y.

Birk, M.

Borel, P. I.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chi, S.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, P. S.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Feng, K. M.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Harley, J.

Ho, K. P.

J. M. Kahn and K. P. Ho, “Spectral efðciency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 259–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn and K. P. Ho, “Spectral efðciency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 259–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, H.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Khurgin, J. B.

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Lingle, R.

Liu, X.

Lu, G.-W.

Magill, P.

McGhan, D. L.

Miyamoto, Y.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nazarathy, M.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L.

Peckham, D. W.

Peng, W. R.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

Sakamoto, T.

Shao, Y.

Shpantzer, I.

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sotoodeh, M.

Tkach, R. W.

Wang, T.

Willner, A. E.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X. X.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zhang, B.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zhou, X.

Zhu, B.

Electron. Lett.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. M. Kahn and K. P. Ho, “Spectral efðciency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 259–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. X. Wu, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach-Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2209–2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

K. Fukuchi, “Proposal and Feasibility Study of a 6-Level PSK Modulation Format Based System for 100-Gb/s Migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OMI6. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2008-OMI6

T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, and T. Mizuochi, “A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator,” in Proceeding of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Torino, Italy, 2010), Paper Tu.3.A.6.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-Format-Free Bias Control Technique for MZ Modulator Based on Differential Phasor Monitor,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA033. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-JWA033

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, 10 x 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz Spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK Transmission over 2375 km Employing Coherent Equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP22. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2007-PDP22

Y. Yang, L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, Q. Xiong, X. Xu, L. Liu, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, “An Optical Differential 8-PSK Modulator Using Cascaded QPSK Modulators, ” in Proceeding of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Vienna, Austria, 2009), Paper P3.19.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, P. Magill, M. Cvijetic, L. Nelson, M. Birk, G. Zhang, S. Y. Ten, H. B. Matthew, and S. K. Mishra, “32Tb/s (320x114Gb/s) PDM-RZ-8QAM Transmission over 580km of SMF-28 Ultra-Low-Loss Fiber,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPB4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2009-PDPB4

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the proposed control technique for a phase modulator. DFB- Distributed Feedback Laser; PM- Phase Modulator; MZM- Mach-Zehnder Modulator; PPG- Pulse Pattern Generator; BPD- Balanced Photo-Detector; DLI- Delay Line Interferometer; AMP- Amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Eye diagrams of the BPD output signal when the DLI has the phase offset φ of (a) 0 degree, and (b) 90 degrees.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of the sampled BPD output signal when the driver signal amplitude is: (a) 1.00 V, (b) 1.12 V, and (c) 1.26 V. The histograms for the DLI phase offset φ of 0 and 90 degrees are plotted in blue and red respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Error signal ε = μ3,90-μ3,0 as a function of the driver signal amplitude Vpp of a phase modulator. Superimposed eye diagrams (for φ of 0 and 90 degrees) when Vpp is (b)1.26 V, (c)1.14 V, and (d)1.00 V.

Equations (5)

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I={ α 1 (1 α 2 )+ α 2 (1 α 1 )β[ α 1 α 2 +(1 α 1 )(1 α 2 ) ] }P +2 α 1 α 2 (1 α 2 )(1 α 1 ) ( 1+β )Re{E(tT) E * (t) e iφ } = C 1 P+ C 2 Re{E(tT) E * (t) e iφ }.
μ 1 = C 1 P+ C 2 Pcos(θ+φ), μ 2 = C 1 P+ C 2 Pcos(φ) or μ 3 = C 1 P+ C 2 Pcos(θφ).
μ 1,90 = C 1 P C 2 Psin(θ), μ 2,90 = C 1 P and μ 3,90 = C 1 P+ C 2 Psin(θ).
μ 1,0 = μ 3,0 = C 1 P+ C 2 Pcos(θ) and μ 2,0 = C 1 P+ C 2 P.
tanθ= μ 3,90 μ 2,90 μ 3,0 μ 2,90

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